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HORSCHETZKY, MORITZ – Austrian physician and writer; born at Bydzov, Bohemia, in 1788; died Nov. 7, 1859, at Nagy-Kanizsa, Hungary, where he had been practising medicine since 1811. As a writer he devoted himself chiefly to the works of Josephus,...
HORSE – Biblical Data: The Hebrew terms are: , the generic and most common term; (I Kings v. 8; Micah i. 13; Esth. viii. 10, 14), the swift horse (A. V. "mule"); (only in the plural), the riding-horse, also the horseman (I Sam. viii....
HORTICULTURE – The Garden. That department of the science of agriculture which relates to the cultivation of gardens. The garden is called "gan" or "gannah" in the later Biblical books, and in the Mishnah "ginnah." Originally the word "gan"...
HORTUS JUDÆORUM – See Cemetery.
HORWITZ, AARON B. JOSEPH HALEVI – Russo-German rabbi; born in Lithuania in the early part of the eighteenth century; died at Berlin 1779. Early in life he lived at Königsberg and at Prague, where he acquired a fair knowledge of German. He then held the position...
HORWITZ, ARYEH LÖB BEN ẒEBI HALEVI – Lithuanian Talmudist of the seventeenth century. After having been "rosh yeshibah" in several German towns Horwitz was called in a similar capacity to the yeshibah of Minsk while Jehiel Heilprin was chief rabbi there. Horwitz...
HORWITZ, BELLA – Daughter of the martyr Be'er ben Hezekiah ha-Levi Horwitz and wife of Joseph ben Ḥayyim Ḥazzan, who died at Prague in 1713 In 1705 she published "Gesch. des Hauses David." In conjunction with Rachel Porges, the wife of Löb...
HORWITZ, BERNARD – Chess player and writer on chess; born 1809 in the grand duchy of Mecklenburg; died in London 1885. A chess pupil of Mendheim in Berlin, he became known as one of the "Pleiades," a name given to the seven leaders of the new...
HORWITZ, ẒEBI HIRSCH BEN PHINEHAS – Rabbi at Frankfort-on-the-Main; died thereSept. 8, 1817. He succeeded his father in the rabbinate of Frankfort in 1805. He was the author of the following works: "Maḥaneh Lewi," halakic novellœ, Offenbach, 1801; "Laḥme Todah,"...
HOSANNA – The cry which the people of Jerusalem were accustomed to raise while marching in procession and waving branches of palm, myrtle, and willow in the joyous Sukkot festival, especially on the seventh day, when the willow-branches...
HOSEA, THE PROPHET – Hosea must have been a citizen of the Northern Kingdom of Israel, and must have remained there permanently during the period of his prophetic activity; for "the land" (i. 2) means Israel, and "our king" (vii. 5) the king of the...
HOSEA, BOOK OF – Biblical Data: The contents of the book may be summarized as follows:Part i., ch. i.-iii.—Two symbolical actions: (a) At the command of Yhwh, Hosea takes to wife an adulterous woman, as a symbol of the people of Israel, who have...
HOSHAIAH – Palestinian amora of the third and fourth amoraic generations (died about 350 C.E.). It is supposed that his colleague Ḥanina was his brother (Sanh. 14a; see Edels, "Ḥiddushe Agadot," ad loc.). They were lineal descendants from...
HOSHAIAH RABBAH, ROBA, BERABBI – Palestinian amora of the first amoraic generation (about 200 C.E.); compiler of baraitot explaining the Mishnah-Tosefta. He was closely associated with the successors of Rabbi, as was his father with Rabbi himself. Hoshaiah's...
HOSHAIAH OF TURYA – See Abba Hoshaya.
HOSHAIAH ZE'ERA DE-MIN ḤABRAYA – Palestinian amora of the third amoraic period (died about 350 C.E.). In the Tosafot it is claimed that "Ḥabraya" was the name of his birth-place, but according to Rashi the word means a "society of colleagues," and the surname...
HOSHA'NA RABBAH – The popular name for the seventh day of the Feast of Booths (Sukkot); the day on which the exclamation "Hosha'na!" (save now!) is often repeated, while on the other days of the feast it is used but sparingly. While the name...
HOSH'ANOT – See Haḳḳafot.
HOSHEA – Biblical Data: Last of the nineteen kings of Israel; son of Elah (II Kings xv. 30). Hoshea secured the throne through a conspiracy in which he was the leader, and which resulted in the assassination of Pekah, "in the twelfth...
HOSHKE, REUBEN – Cabalist; rabbi of Prague; (died April 3, 1673. "Hoshke," his father's name, is a Polish diminutive for "Joshua," mistaken by De Rossi ("Dizionario," s.v. "Oski, Ruben") and Zunz ("Z. G." p. 402) for his family name. He wrote:...
HOSPITAL – House set apart for the treatment of the sick. In early times such institutions were required only for strangers, the idea of sanitary isolation being quite modern, except in case of Leprosy, when a "house of separation" ("bet...
HOSPITALITY – Biblical Data: The "ger," the sojourner who lived with a Hebrew family or clan, was assured by the Biblical law not only of protection against oppression (Ex. xxiii. 9) and deceit (Lev. xix. 33), but also of love from the...
HOST, DESECRATION OF – Defiling the host or sacred wafer of the mass. In the Middle Ages theJews were frequently accused of desecrating the host, an accusation equal in gravity to that of desecrating relics and images of Jesus and the saints. This...
HOST OF HEAVEN – Term occurring several times in the Bible, but not always with a definite meaning. The word "ẓaba" usually designates an army, and thus connotes a vast body of organized and officered men; it conveys, however, also the meaning...
HOSTS, LORD OF – See Names of God.