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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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PREMEDITATION – See Intention.
PREMSLA, SHABBETHAI – Galician grammarian and scribe of the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries; lived at Przemysl. He was the author of a commentary (Lublin, 1622) on Moses Ḳimḥi's grammatical work, "Sefer Mahalak"; in it he defends the author...
PRERAU – Town in Moravia. The Judengasse of Prerau is mentioned as early as Charles IV. (1339-1349), but the settlement of Jews in Prerau was of little significance until 1454, when the expulsions, due to Capistrano, from Olmütz and...
PRERAU, BENJAMIN WOLF – Moravian Hebraist; lived at Prerau in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries. He published Bedersi's "Baḳḳashat ha-Memin," to which he added a German translation, a Hebrew commentary, and an introduction in which each word, as...
PRESBURG – City of Hungary, situated on the River Danube. Its location on a commercial highroad makes it probable that its Jewish community is one of the oldest in Hungary. The first documentary mention of its Jews dates from 1251. In 1291...
PRESBYTER – From the time of Moses down to the Talmudic period the "zeḳenim" (elders) are mentioned as constituting a regular communal organization, occasionally under the Greek name Gerusia. But the term "presbyter" (πρεσβύτερος) is found...
PRESBYTER JUDÆORUM – Chief official of the Jews of England in pre-expulsion times. The office appears to have been for life, though in two or three instances the incumbent either resigned or was dismissed. Prynne, in his "Demurrer" (ii. 62), argues...
PRESS, MOSES ALEXANDROVICH – Russian engineer and technologist; born 1861; died at Sankt Blasien 1901. After passing through the St. Petersburg Institute of Technology, Press became a contributor to the "Moskovski Journal Putei Soobshchenii" and the...
PRESSE ISRAÉLITE, LA – See Periodicals.
PRESTER JOHN – See Tribes, The Lost Ten.
PREY, BIRDS OF – While few clean birds are named in the Old Testament (see Poultry), there are given in Lev. xi. (13-19) and Deut. xiv. (12-21) two parallel lists of birds of prey, the former passage mentioning twenty, and the latter twenty-one....
PRIBRAM (PRZIBRAM), ALFRED – Austrian physician; born at Prague May 11, 1841; educated at the university of his native city (M.D. 1861). He established a practise in Prague, after having been for some time assistant at the general hospital there. He became...
PŘIBRAM, RICHARD – Austrian chemist; born at Prague April 21, 1847; educated at the Polytechnic and the University of Prague, and at the University of Munich (Ph.D. 1869). After a postgraduate course at the University of Leipsic he returned to...
PRICE, JULIUS MENDES – English traveler, artist, and journalist; born in London about 1858; educated at University College (London), at Brussels, and at the School of Fine Arts in Paris. He was war correspondent to the "Illustrated London News" during...
PRIDEAUX, HUMPHREY – English Orientalist; born at Padstow, Cornwall, May 3, 1648; died at Norwich Nov. 1, 1724; educated at Christchurch, Oxford, where he became Hebrew lecturer in 1679. He wrote a life of Mohammed (London, 1697), which was mainly a...
PRIEST – Laymen as Priests. —Biblical Data: One consecrated to the service of the sanctuary and, more particularly, of the altar. This definition, however, holds true rather for the later than for the earlier stages of Hebrew priesthood....
PRIESTLY CODE – Name given by modern scholars to that stratum of the Pentateuch which deals with ceremonial regulations, especially those which relate to sacrifice and purification. These laws once formed part of an independent narrative, which...
PRILUK (PRZYLUK; PURLIK; FRILOCK), ARYEH LÖB – Polish author of the seventeenth century. He wrote a commentary on the Zohar from the pericope "Shemot" to "Ḥuḳḳat," which was published, with the "Sefer Yirah," in Berlin in 1724. The latter book also is credited to...
PRIMO, SAMUEL – Shabbethaian sectary of the seventeenth century; born in Jerusalem; died probably at Constantinople. He was one of the earliest followers of Shabbethai Ẓebi, whose private secretary he became. He first acted in this capacity on...
PRIMOGENITURE – In the Old Testament as well as in the rabbinical legislation a distinction is made between the first-born of inheritance ( ) and the first-born of redemption ( ; comp. Bek. viii. 1, 46a).Primogeniture of Inheritance. The...
PRINCEPS JUDÆORUM – See Mendel.
PRINCES OF THE CAPTIVITY – See Exilarch.
PRINCIPAL AND AGENT – See Agency, Law of.
PRINGSHEIM, NATHANIEL – German botanist; born at Wziesko, Oberschlesien, Nov. 30,1823; died at Berlin Oct. 6, 1894. He was educated at the Friedrichs-Gymnasium at Breslau, and at Leipsic, Berlin (Ph.D. 1848), and Paris, in which latter two cities he...
PRINTERS; PRINTING – See Typography.