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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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PAUL DE BURGOS – His Baptism. Spanish archbishop; born at Burgos about 1351; died Aug. 29, 1435. His father, Isaac ha-Levi, had come from Aragon or Navarre to Burgos in the middle of the fourteenth century. Solomon ha-Levi was the wealthiest and...
PAUL DE SANTA MARIA – See Paul de Burgos.
PAUL OF TARSUS – See Saul of Tarsus.
PAULLI, HOLGER (OLIGER) – Danish religious fanatic; born in Copenhagen 1644; died there Aug., 1714. Of his early life little is known except that he had studied theology. In 1680 he was a slave-merchant, trading in the West Indies and on the coast of...
PAULUS OF PRAGUE (Elhanan ben Menahem) – Convert to Christianity; born apparently at Kholm (Chelm), Poland, about 1540; died at Prague about the end of the sixteenth century. He was first baptized at Nuremberg in 1556, was rebaptized at Chelm in 1568, and is said to...
PAUPERS – See Charity.
PAVIA – Italian city, situated on the River Ticino; the chief city of the province of Pavia. The first indication of the presence of Jews in this city belongs to the eighth century, when occurred the religious disputation between Julius...
PAVIA, ANGELO – Italian deputy and lawyer; born at Venice Feb. 24, 1858. He is (1904) district attorney for the province of Como. In Jan., 1894, on the death of Genala, deputy for Soresina in the province of Cremona, Pavia was chosen as his...
PAVIA, JULIUS (LULLUS) DA – Italian scholar of the eighth century; one of the first European Jews known by name. According to Alcuin, he sustained in Pavia about 760 a religious controversy with the grammarian Maestro Pietro da Pisa. In a letter to...
PAVIA-GENTILOMO-FORTIS, EUGENIA – Italian poetess; born at Milan Jan. 4, 1822; died at Asolo, near Treviso, Dec. 30, 1893. She was a pupil of Luigi Carrer, and her house in Venice was for many years the rendezvous of patriots and litterateurs. She was twice...
PAWNBROKERS – See Pledges.
PAZ, DUARTE DE – Portuguese Marano; representative of and attorney for his Portuguese coreligionists; died about 1541. He was a skilful diplomat but a weak character, and undertook a dubious rôle. He filled various military posts, and so...
PAZ, ENRIQUE ENRIQUEZ DE – See Gomez, Antonio Enriquez.
PE – Seventeenth letter of the Hebrew alphabet. Its name appears to be connected with "peh" = "mouth" (see Alphabet). "Pe" has a double pronunciation: (1) as a surd mute (which sound is indicated by the dagesh lene) it is identical...
PEACE – Biblical Data: The primary meaning of the word is "prosperity," "health" (Jer. xxix. 7; Job xv. 21 [A. V. "prosperity"]; Isa. xlviii. 18; Ps. cxxii. 6; Abot iii. 2). It is used in salutations, as when Jacob asked the shepherds...
PEACE, KISS OF – Sacramental rite in the Christian Church, preceding the mass or communion service. It appears to be referred to in Rom. xvi. 16, I Cor. xvi. 20, II Cor. xiii. 12, and elsewhere, and is referred to by Justin Martyr ("Apologia,"...
PEACE-OFFERING – There are three kinds of peace-offering: (1) the thank-offering ( ); (2) the votive-offering ( ); and (3) the free-will offering ( ). The thank-offering is a response to acts of divine beneficence; the votive and the free-will...
PEACH – This fruit and the plum ( ; Prunus domestica) are mentioned only in late times: the former in the Mishnah (Kil. i. 4; Ma'as. i. 2); the latter not until the Gemara (Löw, "Aramäische Pflanzennamen," No. 105).E. G. H. I....
PEACOCK – Traditional rendering of "tukkiyyim," mentioned among the creatures brought by Solomon's ships from Tarshish (I Kings x. 22). The peacock is an Indian bird (comp. the Malabar "togai" and the Tamil "tokei" for the "tail" of the...
PE'AH – Name of a treatise of the Mishnah, the Tosefta, and the Palestinian Talmud, defining the laws set forth in Lev. xix. 9, 10, xxiii. 22, and Deut. xxiv. 19-22 which relate to the portion of the harvest to be given to the poor, and...
PEAR – The pear is mentioned in the Talmud (see Löw, "Aramäische Pflanzennamen," p. 152). It does not seem to have been extensively cultivated. The Septuagint erroneously rendered απίον (= "pear") for "baka"-trees (I Chron. xiv. 14).E....
PEARL – Biblical Data: Since ancient times the precious product of the pearl-oyster (Mytilus margaritifer Linn.) has been known and has been an article of commerce (comp. Pliny, ix. 35, 54 et seq.; Ælian, x. 13, xv. 18). The ancients,...
PECHERSKI, FEODOSI – Russian saint of the eleventh century (1057-74). According to the so-called Nestorian chronicles, while superior of the Kiev monastery he was in the habit of visiting at night some learned Jews, with whom he indulged in...
PECS (FÜNFKIRCHEN) – Royal free city in the county of Baranya, Hungary. The few Jewish families which had settled there toward the end of the eighteenth century, not having the means to build a synagogue, held services in a rented room. By about...
PECULIAR PEOPLE – See Chosen People.