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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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KASHER – Original meaning, "fit," "proper" (as in Esth. viii. 5; Eccl. x. 10, xi. 6); later, in rabbinical literature, it took the meaning of "fit," "permitted," in contradistinction to "pasul" and "terefah" (="unfit," "forbidden"),...
ḲASMUNAH – Jewish poetess, Andalusian by birth; lived in the twelfth or thirteenth century and wrote in Arabic. Al-Maḳḳari included her in his list of Arabian poets in Spain. According to him Ḳasmunah's father, Ishmael, also was a poet and...
KASSOWITZ, MAX – Austrian physician; born at Presburg, Hungary, Aug. 14, 1842; M.D., Vienna, 1863. For many years assistant to L. Politzer in Vienna, he became his successor as chief of the First Children's Hospital in 1881. In 1885 he became...
KATSCHER, BERTHA – Hungarian writer; born at Treutschin, Hungary, June 12, 1860. She was educated by her aunt, by whom she was taken to Herzegovina, where in 1881 she was married to her cousin Leopold Katscher, the novelist. Up to this time her...
ḲAṬṬINA – Babylonian amora of the second generation (3d cent.); known both as halakist and as haggadist. He was a pupil of Rab (Abba Arika); and his halakot are frequently mentioned in the Babylonian Talmud, as transmitted either by...
KATZ, ALBERT – Rabbi and author; born July 17, 1858, at Lodz (Russian Poland). He studied at the yeshibot of Lublin and Wilna and then (1881) went to Berlin, where he still resides. He officiated as preacher at Fürstenwalde from April, 1883,...
KATZ, LUDWIG – German otologist and laryngologist; born at Loslau Jan. 1, 1848; graduated (M.D.) from Berlin University in 1872. He began to practise as a specialist in Berlin in 1878. In 1892 he became privat-docent at the University of...
KATZENELLENBOGEN – An old, widely ramified family counting many rabbis among its members, who were and are still found in Italy, Poland, Germany, Alsace, and also in America. It derived its name from the locality of Katzenelnbogen in the Prussian...
KATZENELSON, JUDAH LÖB B. ISRAEL – Russian physician; born in Bobruisk 1848. He studied in the rabbinical school of Jitomir and in the Imperial Medico-Surgical Academy of St. Petersburg, and graduated from the latter in 1877. He took part in the war against...
KAUDERS, SAMUEL JUDAH LÖB BEN DAVID – Bohemian rabbi; born at Prague about 1762; died there May 6, 1838. After having finished his studies in that city, he devoted his time to Talmudics without holding a rabbinical position. About 1810 he was called to Kaladei as...
KAUFMAN, ALEXANDER ARKADYEVICH – Russian political economist; born 1864. After graduating in law from the University of St. Petersburg, he was commissioned (1887-90) by the minister of domains to investigate the economic life of the peasants in the governments...
KAUFMAN, ARKADYA (AARON) – Russian communal worker; born at Grodno early in the nineteenth century; died at St. Petersburg April 19, 1893. While receiving a thorough Talmudic education he acquired also by his own unassisted efforts the French and German...
KAUFMAN, ILLARION IGNATYEVICH – Russian political economist; born at Odessa 1847. He graduated from the University of Kharkof, and entered the government service in 1870.Kaufman's writings deal chiefly with problems of currency and loans, especially of state...
KAUFMANN, DAVID – His Life. Austrian scholar; born at Kojetein, Moravia, June 7, 1852; died at Karlsbad, Bohemia, July 6, 1899. He was educated at Kojetein; and from 1861 to 1867 he attended the gymnasium at Kremsir, where he studied the Bible...
KAUFMANN, ISIDOR – Hungarian painter; born March 22, 1853, at Arad. He was originally destined for a commercial career, and could fulfil his wish to become a painter only later in life. In 1875 he went to the "Landes-Zeichenschule" in Budapest,...
KAUFMANN, MOSES JEKUTHIEL – Polish Talmudist; born at Krotoschin about the middle of the seventeenth century. He was a son-in-law of Abraham Abele Gombiner, and was rabbi at Kutno, Poland. He wrote "Ḥuḳḳat Torah," or "Yismaḥ Yisrael," annotations to...
KAULA AL-YAHUDI – Jewish general of the eighth century; appointed by Tariḳ; fought valiantly at Xerez against the Visigoths at the head of his army of Jews and Berbers, and occupied a part of Catalonia. He rose against the tyrannical Al-Ḥurr ibn...
KAULLA – Württemberg family, distinguished for patriotism and benevolence. The leading members have been:Jacob Raphael Kaulla: German court banker; born at Buchau on the Feder-See about the middle of the eighteenth century; died at...
KAVALA – Settlement in Macedonia, on the Ægean Sea opposite the island of Thasos. It is nine miles southwest of Old Kavala, the ancient Neapolis. Kavala has 4,000 inhabitants, one-fourth of whom are Jews, originally from Salonica and...
KAWWANAH – Aside from the general idea of devotion conveyed by this Hebrew word (see Devotion), the term is used in the plural form by cabalists to denote ideas suggested by certain letters and words. In some prayer-books these are...
KAYSER, PAUL – German jurist and diplomat; born at Oels, Silesia, Aug. 9, 1845; died atLeipsic Feb. 13, 1898. He was admitted to the bar in 1872; became city judge in Berlin in 1875; was appointed "Regierungsrath" in the department of justice...
KAYSERLING, MEYER – German rabbi and historian; born in Hanover June 17, 1829; died at Budapest, April 21, 1905; educated at Halberstadt, Nikolsburg (Moravia), Prague, Würzburg, and Berlin. He devoted himself to history and philosophy. Encouraged...
KAYSERLING, SIMON – German educator and writer; born at Hanover Aug. 31, 1834; died there April 22, 1898; brother of Meyer Kayserling. He attended the Talmud school in Würzburg and the University of Berlin. He was the principal teacher and...
ḲAYYARA, SIMEON – Babylonian halakist of the first half of the ninth century. The early identification of his surname with "Ḳahirah," the Arabic name of Cairo (founded 980), was shown by Rapoport ("Teshubot ha-Ge'onim," ed. Cassel, p. 12, Berlin,...
KAẒ – A frequent Jewish family name, spelled also "Katz," and found in similar forms, such as "Katzer." It is an abbreviation formed from the initials of the name "Kohen Ẓedeḳ" ( ), and has been used since the seventeenth century, or...