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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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BLUMENSTOCK VON HALBAN, LEO – Austrian physician; born at Cracow March 11, 1838; died there Feb. 28, 1897. Educated at the gymnasium and university of his native town and at the university at Vienna, he was graduated as doctor of medicine in 1862. He engaged...
BLUMENTHAL, HEINRICH – German manufacturer and philanthropist; born at Darmstadt, Hesse, March 12, 1824; died there March 27, 1901. Even as a boy his love for technical work was noticeable, in consequence of which his father sent him to the technical...
BLUMENTHAL, JOSEPH – American communal worker; born in Munich, Germany, Dec. 1, 1834; died in New York March 2, 1901. In 1839 he went to the United States with his parents, and in 1854 entered business at Mariposa, Cal., remaining there for five...
BLUMENTHAL, MARK – American physician; born July 11, 1831, at Altenstadt-on-the-Iller, Bavaria.He came to America with his parents in Aug., 1839, attended the academy at Chambersburg, Pa., the public and high schools at Philadelphia, Pa., and...
BLUMENTHAL, NISSEN – Russian ḥazan; born in Jassy, Rumania, 1805; died in Odessa Feb. 9, 1902. Though educated for the rabbinate, his excellent voice and musical ability fitted him for a ḥazan. He emigrated to Russia, became cantor of Berdychev and...
BLUMENTHAL, OSKAR – German author and playwright; born at Berlin March 13, 1852. He was educated at the gymnasium and the university of his native town, and at the university at Leipsic, where, in 1872, he received the degree of doctor of...
B'NAI B'RITH – The largest and oldest Jewish fraternal organization. It has (1902) a membership of about 30,000, divided into more than 330 lodges and 10 grand lodges, distributed over the United States, Germany, Rumania, Austria-Hungary,...
B'NAI B'RITH MESSENGER – See Periodicals.
BNEI ZION – See Fraternities.
BOAR, WILD – In Psalm lxxx. 14 the wild boar is introduced in a metaphor and described as coming out of the wood to root up the vine. Wild hogs have always been known in Palestine.Richard Cœur de Lion is said to have had an encounter with a...
BOAS, EDUARD – German author and traveler; born at Landsberg-on-the-Warthe Jan. 1, 1815; died there June, 1853. He was destined for a commercial career by his parents; and, for the purpose of acquiring a knowledge of international trade...
BOAS, IMAR – German physician and medical author; born at Exin, province of Posen, Prussia, March 28, 1858. After having completed his studies at the gymnasium, he attended the medical courses at the universities of Berlin, Halle, and...
BOAT – See Navigation.
BOAZ – Biblical Data: One of the relatives of Elimelech, husband of Naomi; a wealthy Judean, living at Bethlehem in Judah (Ruth ii. 1). He was one of the kinsmen of Ruth; as such he had the privilege of redeeming the family estate sold...
BOAZ, ISRAEL MICHAEL – See Cresson, Warder.
BOBOVNIA – See Minsk.
BOBRUISK – City in a district of the same name, in the government of Minsk, Russia; situated on the right bank of the River Berezina. It is mentioned the first time in official documents concerning Jews, issued in 1511. The inhabitants of...
BOCARA, ABRAHAM B. MOSES – Rabbi of the community of Leghorn Jews at Tunis, where he died in 1879. He was the author of "Ben Abraham," a work treating of difficult problems in religious law, and published at Leghorn, 1882, by his relative, Jacob Bocara....
BOCCACCIO, GIOVANNI, IN JEWISH LITERATURE – Among the translations into Judæo-German of popular books and legends, such as Bevis of Hampton, the Arthur legend, and Till-Eulenspiegel, there is one of seven stories from the "Decameron" of Boccaccio (1313-75). The...
BOCHART, SAMUEL – One of the greatest scholars of the seventeenth century, and an illustrious representative of the science and theology of the French Reformed Church; born at Rouen in 1599; died in Caen, May 16, 1667. His parents were persons of...
BOCHIM – Name of a place near Beth-el. The Septuagint reads in Judges ii. 1, "The place of weeping to Beth-el and to all Israel." It may be identical with Beth-el itself (see Moore, Judges, ad loc.).J. Jr. G. B. L.
BOCHNER, ḤAYYIM B. BENJAMIN ZE'EB – Cabalist, Talmudist, and grammarian; born at Cracow, Galicia, in the first quarter of the seventeenth century; died at Fürth, Bavaria, Feb. 2, 1684. He was the son of one of the wealthiest Jews of Cracow, who owned a stone...
BOCHNIA, AUSTRIA – See Galicia.
BOCK, ALFRED – German novelist; born at Giessen, Hesse-Darmstadt, Oct. 14, 1859. He received his education at the gymnasium and the university of his native town, and traveled through Denmark, Italy, Turkey, and Greece. He now (1902) lives in...
BOCK, M. H. – German educator; born at Magdeburg, 1784; died at Leipsic April 10, 1816, while on a journey. He was one of the ablest modern Jewish teachers in Germany at the beginning of the nineteenth century; and the fashionable private...