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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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JUDE, DER (New York) – See Periodicals.
JUDE, EPISTLE OF – See New Testament.
JUDEA – See Palestine.
JUDENBÜHL – See Nuremberg.
JUDENBURG – Arms of the Jews of Judenburg.One of the oldest cities of Styria, Austria; the ancient Idunum. The name of Judenburg occurs in a document of 1075. Then there were many Jews in the district; Jews probably had been living there...
JUDENDEUTSCH – See Judæo-German.
JUDENEID – See Oath, More Judaico.
JUDENGELEIT – See Leibzoll.
JUDENHERBERGEN – See Inns.
JUDENHUT – Tall, conical hat, generally yellow, serving, in conformity with the decrees of the fourth Lateran Council (1215), as a distinguishing mark for the Jews. This council ("Mansi Concilia," xxii. 1055 et seq.; Grätz, "Gesch." 3d...
JUDENSCHREINSBUCH – Collection of deeds belonging to Jews in the St. Lawrence parish of the city of Cologne (Germany); since the thirteenth century they have been kept in a separate alcove; later on they were bound into book form. The Jewish deeds...
JUDENSCHULE (Schola Judæorum) – The usual German expression for "synagogue" in medieval times. It seems to have been first used in the charter of Frederick II. of Austria, issued 1244 (Scherer, "Die Rechtsverhältnisse der Juden," etc., p. 182), wherein wilful...
JUDENSTÄTTIGKEIT – Archaic technical term for the legal status of a Jewish community, and as such identical with the more frequent term "Judenschutz." It seems to have been used only at Frankfort-on-the-Main and Worms. The first edition of the...
JUDGE – Biblical Data: The common Hebrew equivalent for "judge" is "shofeṭ," a term found also in the Phenician as "sufeṭ" (= "regulator"); the latter is a name given to those who had chief control in the Sidonian colonies, and to the...
JUDGES, BOOK OF – In the Hebrew canon, the second book of the Earlier Prophets, placed between Joshua and Samuel.§ I. Name: The book derives its name from the fact that it deals with the "Judges," a term which, according to the statements found...
JUDGES, PERIOD OF – Social Conditions. The present form of the Book of Judges has given rise to the phrase "time of the Judges," which covers the period from the death of Joshua down to the revival and consolidation of Israel as a kingdom under...
JUDGMENT – The sentence or final order of a court in a civil or criminal proceeding, enforceable by the appropriate modes of execution appointed by law. In criminal cases, according to Talmudic law, the judgment was pronounced by the chief...
JUDGMENT, DAY OF – See Day of Judgment; Judgment, Divine.
JUDGMENT, DIVINE – The final decision by God, as Judge of the world, concerning the destiny of men and nations according to their merits and demerits. Justice and righteousness are such fundamental ideas with Judaism and are such essential...
JUDICIAL PROCEDURE – See Procedure.
JUDICIAL RECORDS – See Deed; Judgment.
JUDICIAL SALES – See Execution.
JÜDISCH-THEOLOGISCHES SEMINAR (FRÄNCKELSCHER STIFTUNG) – Institution in Breslau for the training of rabbis, founded under the will of Jonas Fränckel, and opened in 1854. Commercial Councilor ("Kommerzienrath") Jonas Fränckel, a descendant of a rabbinic family, and a very wealthy...
JÜDISCHE CHRONIK – See Periodicals.
JÜDISCHE LITERATURBLATT, DAS – See Periodicals.