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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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IBN YA'ISH, BARUCH BEN ISAAC – Philosopher and translator of the fifteenth century; apparently a native of Spain, though he lived in Italy. Ibn Ya'ish, in addition to being a master of Hebrew, had a thorough knowledge of Arabic and Latin. His only original...
IBN, ZABARRA – Judæo-Spanish family-name, found as early as the twelfth century; derived perhaps from a place-name. In Spanish documents a Jafre Avinzabarre is mentioned, in 1258; and, toward the end of the thirteenth century, at Manresa, the...
IBN ZABARRA, JUDAH – Poet and theologian; flourished in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries; probably a native of Spain, where the surname of "Zabara" was borne by several scholars. He was the pupil of Aaron ha-Levi (d. 1293-94) and of Meïr...
IBN ẒARẒAL – See ẒarẒal, Abraham ibn.
IBRAHIM IBN YA'ḲUB, The Israelite – Jewish merchant-traveler of the tenth century. The little that is known about Ibrahim ibn Ya'ḳub is from his own account of the countries of the Slavs, and this is rather uncertain. He was a merchant and a slave-dealer, and...
IBZAN – Judge of Israel for seven years after Jephthah; a native of Beth-lehem he had thirty sons and thirty daughters, and was buried in his native town (Judges xii. 8-10). As "Bethlehem" here is not followed by "Ephratah" or by...
ICHABOD – Son of Phinehas and grandson of Eli. Born after the death in battle of his father and the tragic death of his grandfather, he was named "Ichabod" ( = particle of negation; = "glory") by his dying mother, who exclaimed at the...
IDDO – A seer ( ), or prophet ( ), whose prophecies were directed against Jeroboam (II Chron. ix. 29). In the Masoretic text his name occurs as (ketib) and (ḳeri). He is quoted also (ib.) as an authority on the lives of Solomon,...
IDENTITY, PROOF OF – In criminal cases the witnesses were required to be certain of the identity both of the accused and of the victim, as well as of the nationality to which the victim belonged (Sanh. 40b). When the accused succeeded in escaping...
IDI – Name of several Babylonian amoraim who flourished from the middle of the second to the middle of the fifth century. In the Talmud "Idi" is sometimes interchanged with "Ada" ( ), according to the variation of pronunciation...
IDI B. ABIN NAGGARA – Babylonian amora of the fourth period (about 350). His father, whose name ("Naggara"="carpenter") probably indicates his occupation, came from Nerash or Nerus ( ), in Babylonia. The son, Idi (or Ada), gave an explanation in the...
IDI OF CÆSAREA – See Idi b. Jacob II.
IDI B. GERSHOM (ADA B. GERSHON) – Babylonian amora of the tannaitic period (about 150); father of Idi b. Idi (Ḥul. 98a; comp. Yer. Ter. x. 10). There is some connection between Idi b. Gershom and Idi b. Jacob I.; perhaps they were brothers-in-law. Idi quotes Ada...
IDI OF ḤUṬRA – See Idi b. Jacob II.
IDI BEN IDI – See Idi b. Gershom.
IDI B. JACOB II – Babylonian amora of the second period (about 250). Idi was a disciple of Johanan. The journey from Idi's home in Babylonia to the yeshibah of Johanan at Tiberias occupied about three months, and two journeys there and back in...
IDIOCY – Mental deficiency, depending upon disease or imperfect development of the nervous system, and dating from birth or from early infancy previous to the evolution of the mental faculties.Though the parents of more than 15 per cent...
IDIT – Name of an amora who is known only from a passage preserved by Naḥman (Sanh. 38b), the passage being a part of a controversy between Idit and a heretic. The proper reading of the name is "Idi" ( ) and this amora is identical...
IDOLATRY AND IDOLS – See Worship, Idol.
IDUMEA – See Edom.
IGEL, LAZAR ELIAS – Austrian rabbi; born Feb. 28, 1825, at Lemberg, where his father was a second-hand bookseller; died at Czernowitz March 26, 1892. After studying in the gymnasium of Lemberg, he went, at the age of fifteen, to Padua, where he...
IGGERET – See Letter-Writing.
'IGGUL OF RABBI NAḤSHON GAON – See Calendar.
IGLAU – Mining-town in Moravia, Austria. While Jews settled at Brünn at a very early time, regulations concerning the Jews of Iglau are not found in the town records before 1250. Charles IV., while margrave of Moravia, sought to...
IGNATIEV (IGNATYEV, IGNATIEFF), COUNT NIKOLAI PAVLOVICH – Fosters Anti-Jewish Agitation. Russian statesman; born 1832. He was one of the prime movers in the reactionary anti-Jewish legislation of the last quarter of the nineteenth century, the alleged instigator of the anti-Jewish...