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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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ELVIRA – The ancient Illiberis; capital of the province of the same name, situated on a hill northwest of Granada, Spain, and now in ruins. It was the cradle of Spanish Christianity, and the seat of the celebrated Illiberian Council...
ELYAS OF LONDON – Presbyter of the Jews of England 1237-1257; died in London 1284. He succeeded Aaron of York, represented London at the so-called "Jewish Parliament" at Worcester in 1240, and in 1249 was allowed to have Abraham fil Aaron as his...
ELYMAIS – Generally denoting the Persian province of Elam ( ). It occurs in two places (I Macc. vi. 1; Josephus, "Ant." xii. 9, § 1) as the name of a rich city besieged by Antiochus Epiphanes. But the other historians who relate this...
'ELYON – See God.
ELZAS, ABRAHAM – Minister and author; born in Elbergen, Holland, in 1835; died at Hull, England, 1880. He was educated in Holland, and went to England from Russia about 1867. He traveled extensively, visiting for scholastic purposes many parts...
ELZAS, BARNETT ABRAHAM – American rabbi; born at Eydtkuhnen, Germany, 1867; educated at Jews' College (1880-90), University College, London ("Hollier Scholar," 1886), and at London University (B.A., 1885). Elzas moved to Toronto, Canada (1890), where he...
EMADABUN – A Levite, and one of the overseers at the restoration of the Temple (I Esd. v. 58). Probably a mere doublet of "Eliadun," the name is omitted in the Vulgate and in the parallel passage (Ezra iii. 9).E. G. H. E. I. N....
EMANATION – The doctrine that all existing things have been produced not by any creative power, but as successive outflowings from the God-head, so that all finite creatures are part and parcel of the Divine Being. This pantheistic...
EMANCIPATION OF SLAVES – See Slaves.
EMANU-EL – A weekly journal published in San Francisco, Cal. The first number was issued in May, 1895. Jacob Voorsanger is the editor. It is devoted especially to the interests of Jews and Judaism on the Pacific coast.G. A. M. F....
EMANUEL, LEWIS – Secretary and solicitor to the Board of Deputies of British Jews; born at Portsmouth May 14, 1832; died in London June 19, 1898. He was educated at Ramsgate, and in 1853 was admitted to practise as a solicitor. He was a...
EMBDEN (EMDEN) – A family deriving its name, perhaps, from Emden, Germany. Carl Adam Emden, privy councilor and high bailiff of Prince Salm-Salm, was ennobled in 1791. It is probable that Eleazar Solomon von Embden (who lived in London about...
EMBDEN, CHARLOTTE – See Heine, Heinrich.
EMBDEN, ELEAZAR SOLOMON VON (Eliezer Leser Levi) – German physician and traveler; born at Emrich, near Cleves, between 1770 and 1780; graduated at Frankfort-on-the-Oder in 1800. From 1804 to 1816 he lived in England; he then settled in Hamburg, and in 1838 returned to England....
EMBEZZLEMENT – The fraudulent conversion to one's own use of goods or money entrusted to one's care and control. The offense differs from theft in that in the latter the possession itself is unlawful.The Mosaic law provides a penalty for...
EMBROIDERY – Ornamental needlework on cloth, more frequently on linen, often executed in variegated colors and designs. Among the Egyptians and Assyro-Babylonians this art was highly developed, and Biblical texts make mention of the fact....
EMBRON FAMILY, THE – See Ambron.
EMBRYO – The young of a mammal while still connected with the body of its mother. The child "en ventre sa mere" of English law was a subject of dispute between the ancient and the new Halakah, the former considering it a separate living...
EMDEN – Prussian maritime town in the province of Hanover. It is not known when Jews first settled there. In the sixteenth century David Gans mentions ("Ẓemaḥ Dawid," 1581, ii.) Jews at Emden. In the letter of complaints (March 9, 1590)...
EMDEN, HERMANN SELIGMANN – German engraver and photographer; born at Frankfort-on-the-Main Oct. 18, 1815; died there Sept. 6, 1875. Early evincing a love for art and unable to afford an academic education, he entered an engraving and lithographic...
EMDEN, JACOB ISRAEL BEN ẒEBI ASHKENAZI – German Talmudist and anti-Shabbethaian; born at Altona June 4, 1697; died there April 19, 1776. Until seventeen Emden studied Talmud under his father, known as "Ḥakam Ẓebi," first at Altona, then (1710-14) at Amsterdam. In 1715...
EMERALD – See Gems.
EMET WE-YAẒẒIB – The initial words of the morning benediction following the Shema' and closing with the Ge'ullah ("Redemption"). Recited by the priests after the Shema' in the morning service in the Temple hall, "lishkat ha-gazit" (Tamid v. 1),...
EMIGRATION – See Migration.
EMIM – A name applied (Deut. ii. 10) to the original inhabitants of Moab, though the Septuagint reads for it Ομμίν. The name is used (Gen. xiv. 5) to designate also the inhabitants of the plain of Kirjathaim. Here the Septuagint calls...