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JONATHAN BEN HORḲINAS (ARCHINAS) – Palestinian scholar of the first century; contemporary of Eleazar b. Azariah and a disciple of the school of Shammai. He was reputed for his acuteness, in recognition of which he was styled "bekor saṭan" (= "first-born as...
JONATHAN BEN JACOB – Hungarian Talmudist and author; flourished at Buda (Ofen) toward the end of the seventeenth century. In 1688, when Buda was taken by the imperial troops, Jonathan was among the captives, but he was ransomed by the Jews of...
JONATHAN BEN JOSEPH – Lithuanian rabbi and astronomer; lived at Risenoi, government of Grodno, in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. In addition to his Talmudical acquirements Jonathan was proficient in astronomy and mathematics. In 1710 a...
JONATHAN LEVI ZION – Representative of the Jewish community of Frankfort-on-the-Main in its defense against the attacks of John Pfefferkorn. When the latter had obtained from EmperorMaximilian I. an edict ordering the confiscation of all Hebrew...
JONATHAN MACCABEUS – Leader of the Jews. Son of Mattathias; leader of the Jews in the Maccabean wars from 161 to 143 B.C. He is called also Apphus (Ἀπφοῦς [Syriac, ] = "the dissembler," "the diplomat," in allusion to a trait prominent in him; I...
JONATHAN THE SADDUCEE – Friend of the Hasmonean prince John Hyrcanus (135-104 B.C.). As the Pharisees belittled the prince's fitness for the office of high priest, Jonathan incited the prince against them, with the intention of driving them out of...
JONATHAN SAR HA-BIRAH – See Jonathan ben Eleazar.
JONATHAN BEN UZZIEL – Hillel's most distinguished pupil (Suk. 28a; B. B. 134a). No halakot of his have been preserved, though a tradition makes him the author of a halakah which, if authentic, proves him to have possessed the quality of unselfishness...
JONATHANSON, AARON B. ẒEBI – Russian Hebraist and poet; born about 1815; died in Kovno July 27, 1868. His father, a great-grandson of Jonathan Eybeschütz, settled in Wilna, and there Aaron followed the profession of teacher until about 1859, when he removed...
JONES, ALFRED T. – American editor and communal worker; born in Boston July 4, 1822; died at Philadelphia Oct. 3, 1888. In 1842 he became a resident of Philadelphia, and was successively engaged in the wholesale clothing and printing businesses....
JONES, THOMAS – English publisher; convert to Judaism; born in 1791; died in London May 25, 1882. By birth a Roman Catholic, his change of faith was the result of deep study and conviction. Jones, who for many years pursued the business of...
JOPPA – See Jaffa.
JORAM – See Jehoram.
JORDAN, THE – Principal river of Palestine, formed by the confluence of three streams rising respectively at (1) Baniyas (Paneas), (2) Tell al-Ḳaḍi (Dan), and (3) Ḥaṣbeyah (Baal Gad) at the foot of Mt. Hermon. The Jordan flows south through...
JOSE (Joseph), ABBA, BEN DOSITAI (Dosai; Derosai; Dosa) – Palestinian tanna of the second century; mentioned as both halakist and haggadist. He transmitted a halakah of R. Jose the Galilean (Tosef., Ta'an. ii. 6). His haggadot consist chiefly of reconciliations between contradictory...
JOSE, ABBA, BEN ḤANIN – Palestinian tanna of the last decades before the destruction of the Temple; contemporary of Eliezer B. Jacob and of Ḥanina b. Antigonus, with both of whom he is mentioned in a halakic discussion (Tosef., Suk. iv. 15). His name...
JOSE, ABBA, OF MAḤUZA – Scholar of the third (?) century; mentioned once only (Mek., Beshallaḥ, Wayeḥi, 3), a haggadah of his being transmitted by R. Nathan. In Mek., Bo, 17, there is mentioned an Abba Jose together with R. Jonathan; and as the...
JOSE B. ABIN – Palestinian amora of the fifth generation (4th cent.); son of R. Abin I. (Bacher, "Ag. Pal. Amor." iii. 724) and the teacher of R. Abin II. (Yer. Ned. 3b). He was at first the pupil of R. Jose of Yodḳart, but the latter's...
JOSE (ISI, ISSI) BEN AḲABYA (AKIBA) – Tanna of the beginning of the third century. The name "Issi" or "Assa" is derived from "Jose," and was borne by many tannaim and amoraim; hence the confusion that prevails in the Talmud concerning the identity of each of them,...
JOSE THE GALILEAN – Tanna; lived in the first and second centuries of the common era. Jose was a contemporary and colleague of R. Akiba, R. Ṭarfon, and R. Eleazar b. Azariah. Neither the name of his father nor the circumstances of his youth are...
JOSE BEN ḤALAFTA – Palestinian tanna of the fourth generation (2d cent.). Of his life only the following few details are known: He was born at Sepphoris; but his family was of Babylonian origin (Yoma 66b). According to a genealogical chart found...
JOSE B. JACOB B. IDI – Palestinian amora of the fourth generation (4th cent.). He was the colleague of R. Judan of Magdala (Yer. Ta'an. i. 3), and one of the expounders of the haggadot of R. Aha the Lydian. He has also some original sayings, in one of...
JOSE BEN JOEZER OF ZEREDAH – Rabbi of the early Maccabean period; possibly a disciple of Antigonus of Soko, though this is not certain. He belonged to a priestly family. With him and Jose ben Johanan of Jerusalem, his colleague, begins the period known in...
JOSE (JOSEPH) BEN JOHANAN – President of the Sanhedrin in the second century B.C.; a native of Jerusalem. He and Jose b. Joezer were the successors and, it is said, the disciples of Antigonus of Soko (Ab. i. 4-5), and the two together formed the first of a...
JOSE BEN JOSE – The earliest payyeṭan known by name; flourished, at the latest, about the end of the sixth century in Palestine. He is callea "ha-yatom" (the orphan), probably because, bearing his father's name, it was assumed that the latter...