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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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JOSE B. JUDAH – Tanna of the end of the second century. He is principally known through his controversies with R. Judah I. As specimens of his exegeses, the following may be given here. On the expression (Lev. xix. 36) he comments, "Let thy yea...
JOSE B. ḲAẒRATA (Ḳuẓira; Ḳaẓra) – Palestinian amora of the first amoraic generation; son-in-law of R. Jose. Kohut is of the opinion that the surname is derived from "Ḳaẓẓara" (washer); but in Tan., Wayeḥi, the name "Ḳaẓra" is found. Two other amoraim with this...
JOSE HA-KOHEN ("the Pious") – Tanna of the second generation; flourished in the first and second centuries; pupil of Johanan ben Zakkai. It is said of him that he never allowed any writing of his to remain in the hands of a heathen, lest he should carry it...
JOSE OF MALLAḤAYA – Palestinian amora of the fourth generation. According to his explanation of Ps. lvii. 5 the disasters that overtook the Jews were caused by their inclination to slander, common among them even in the time of David (Lev. R....
JOSE OF MAON – Popular preacher of the beginning of the third century; delivered his addresses in a synagogue at Tiberias which bore the name of the locality—"Maon" , whence probably his surname ( = "of Maon"). He is said to have been...
JOSE B. NEHORAI – Palestinian amora of the first generation; halakot are transmitted in his name by Johanan (Rashi, B. M. 41a). Of his haggadic explanations the following may be cited: With reference to Eccl. iii. 15 he explains the word to mean...
JOSE B. SAUL – Palestinian amora of the first generation (3d cent.). He is known chiefly as a transmitter of the sayings and traditions of the patriarch Judah I., whose disciple he was. These as well as his own sayings are further transmitted...
JOSEFFY, RAFAEL – American piano virtuoso; born in 1852 in Hunfalu, Hungary. In the following year the family moved to Miskolcz, where he spent his childhood and received his first musical instruction. At the age of ten he made his first public...
JOSEL (JOSELMANN, JOSELIN) OF ROSHEIM (JOSEPH BEN GERSHON LOANZ) – The great advocate ("shtadlan") of the German Jews during the reigns of the emperors Maximilian I. and Charles V.; born about 1480; died March, 1554, at Rosheim, Alsace.While still young he worked for the welfare of his...
JOSEPH – Sold as Slave. —Biblical Data: Eleventh son of Jacob and the elder of the two sons of Rachel; born at Haran (Gen. xxx. 24). The meaning given to the name (l.c.) is "shall add": "The Lord shall add to me another son." It seems...
JOSEPH (High Priest) – 1. Son of Ellem ( ) of Sepphoris; installed by Herod for one day (Yom Kippur) as a substitute for the high priest, who had become unclean (Tosef., Yoma i. 4; Yer. Yoma i. 1; Yer. Hor. iii. 3; Hor. 12b; et al.). Josephus, who...
JOSEPH II. – German emperor; born March 13, 1741; died Feb. 20, 1790, at Vienna. As German emperor his sovereignty was one in name only, but as ruler of Austria in succession to his mother, Maria Theresa (d. Nov. 29, 1780), his activities...
JOSEPH – Prominent Jewish family which settled in Canada toward the close of the eighteenth century. It was descended from Naphtali Joseph, of an Anglo-Jewish family which had come from the Netherlands.1. Abraham Joseph: A brother of...
JOSEPH BEN ABBA – Gaon of Pumbedita for a period of two years; died in 816 (Sherira Gaon; Neubauer, "M. J. C." i. 37). Abraham ibn Daud ("Sefer ha-Ḳabbalah," ib. i. 64) calls him Joseph b. Judah and places his death in 824. After the death of the...
JOSEPH IBN ABITUR – See Abitur, Joseph.
JOSEPH BEN ABRAHAM – Liturgical poet. Seven prayers bearing the name "Joseph ben Abraham" are found in the Siddur of Avignon. Zunz identifies this Joseph with Joseph of Monselice, whose seliḥah for the seventeenth of Tammuz is inserted in the ritual...
JOSEPH BEN ABRAHAM ISSACHAR BÄRMAN MINKDAM – Dutch scholar of the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. He translated into Judæo-German the Targum to Canticles (Amsterdam, 1711); the translation was inserted in Jacob b. Isaac's "Ẓe'enah u-Re'enah," the wellknown homiletic...
JOSEPH BEN ABRAHAM HA-KOHEN HA-RO'EH – His "Muḥtawi." Karaite philosopher and theologian; flourished in Babylonia or Persia in the first half of the eleventh century; teacher of Joshua ben Judah (Abu al-Faraj Furḳan ibn Asad). By way of euphemism he was surnamed...
JOSEPH BEN AḤMAD IBN ḤASDAI – Egyptian physician and medical writer; lived in Cairo at the beginning of the twelfth century. Although his biographer, Ibn Abi Uṣaibi'ah, does not affirm his Jewish descent, there is no doubt that Joseph belonged to the...
JOSEPH THE APOSTATE – Jewish convert to Christianity in the first half of the fourth century. He was one of the assessors of the rabbinical school of the patriarch Judah III. at Tiberias, and in this capacity was sent as delegate to the Jewish...
JOSEPH BEN ARDUT – See Nasi, Joseph.
JOSEPH OF ARIMATHÆA – Wealthy Jew (probably a member of the Essene fraternity) who, out of sympathy with Jesus, gave him burial in one of the tombs cut in the rocks near the city of Jerusalem. The story is told with some variations in all the...
JOSEPH OF ARLES – French Talmudist and cabalist of the sixteenth century. A letter signed "Joseph " (= "of Arles") is found among the halakic decisions of Menahem Carmi, written in 1584 (Almanzi collection). Joseph is identical with Joseph , who,...
JOSEPH THE ASTRONOMER – See Vecinho, Joseph.
JOSEPH DE AVILA – See Zohar.