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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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MONEY – Biblical Data: I. As far back as the history of Israel can be traced, gold and silver were used as standards of value and mediums of exchange, and, as the Egyptian tribute-lists show, they were thus employed in Canaan even...
MONEY-LENDING – See Usury.
MONIES, DAVID – Danish portrait and genre painter; born in Copenhagen June 3, 1812; died there April 29, 1894. He was admitted to the school of the Academy of Arts in 1824, and was twice (1827 and 1832) awarded silver medals for meritorious...
MONIS, JUDAH – American scholar. Hannah Adams in her "History of the Jews" says that he was born in Algiers about 1683, and that he died in Northborough, Mass., in 1764; while Josiah Quincy in his "History of Harvard University" gives the year...
MONOGAMY – Monogamy the Jewish Ideal. In Judaism the Law tolerated though it did not enact polygamy; but custom stood higher than the Law. From the period of the return from the Babylonian Exile, monogamy became the ideal and the custom of...
MONOTHEISM – The belief in one God. The French writer Ernest Renan has propounded the theory that the monotheistic instinct was a Semitic trait, and that therefore the universal belief that it was characteristic of the Hebrews alone must be...
MONREAL – City in Navarre, situated three miles from Pamplona; to be distinguished from a city of the same name in Aragon. A small number of Jews lived here in a "Juderia." In 1320 the Jews of Pamplona, who were threatened by the...
MONSTER – See Leviathan.
MONTAGU, HYMAN – English numismatist and lawyer; died in London Feb. 18, 1895; son of Samuel Moses (having later assumed the name ofMontagu); educated at the City of London School. Articled to a firm of lawyers, he passed his final examination...
MONTAGU, SIR SAMUEL, Bart. – English banker and communal worker; born at Liverpool Dec. 21, 1832; son of Louis Samuel, his name, "Montagu Samuel," having been in his early boyhood reversed by his parents. He went to London in 1847, and in 1853 founded the...
MONTALBAN – City in Aragon; not to be confused with Montalban in Castile, in the archbishopric of Toledo, which was also inhabited by Jews. Montalban possessed a Jewish community as early as the fourteenth century. In 1306 the governor of...
MONTALTO, FILOTHEO ELIAU (ELIJAH) – Portuguese physician; born at Castello Branco in the middle of the sixteenth century; died at Tours, France, in 1616. According to Kayserling ("Die Juden in Navarra," p. 146), Montalto was a brother of the physician Amatus...
MONTANA – One of the northwestern states of the American Union. It was organized as a territory in 1864, and admitted as a state in 1889. It has the following Jewish communities: Helena, the capital of the state, with a benevolent...
MONTAUBAN, R. ELIEZER – See Dauphiné.
MONTE DI PIETÀ – See Pawnbrokers.
MONTEFIORE – Anglo-Jewish family which derives its name from a town in Italy. In 1856 there were three towns so named in the Pontifical States, but from which of the three the family came is not definitely known. As far back as 1630 the...
MONTÉLIMAR – Capital of the department of the Drome, France. A large number of Jews lived here from the beginning of the fourteenth century. They possessed a synagogue in the Rue du Puits-Neuf, formerly the Rue de la Juiverie, as well as a...
MONTEZINOS, ANTONIO DE (AARON LEVI) – Marano traveler of the seventeenth century. He claimed that while journeying in South America about 1641 near Quito, Ecuador, he met with savages who practised Jewish ceremonies and recited the Shema' and who were of the tribe...
MONTEZINOS LIBRARY – Division of the library of the Portuguese Rabbinical Seminary 'Eẓ Ḥayyim at Amsterdam, Holland. It was bequeathed in 1889 by D. R. Montezinos (b. Dec. 6, 1829), the well-known bibliophile of that city, and was dedicated on April...
MONTGOMERY – See Alabama.
MONTH – A unit of time; the period between one new moon and another. According to the account of Creation in Genesis, it was decreed that the "lesser light" should "rule the night" and serve "for signs and for seasons" (Gen. i. 14). The...
MONTI, ANDREA DI – See Joseph Ẓarfati.
MONTICELLI – Small town in the province of Piacenza, northern Italy, with a Jewish community dating from the expulsion of the Jews from the duchy of Milan in 1597. The first settlers were the Soavi and Sforni families of Cremona. The...
MONTORO, ANTON DE – Spanish poet of the fifteenth century; born in Montoro 1404; died after March, 1477; son of Fernando Alfonso de Baena Ventura, and a near relative of the poet Juan Alfonso de Baena. His vocation was that of a "ropero"; he calls...
MONTPELLIER – School of Medicine. Capital of the department of Hérault, a part of the old province of Languedoc, France. It is sometimes called also "Har Ga'ash" = "Mountain of Trembling," "Har ha-Niḳra Pissulano" = "Mount Pessulanus," or...