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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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PHINEHAS BEN CLUSOTH – Leader of the Idumcans. Simon b. Giora undertook several expeditions into the territory of the Idumeans to requisition provisions for his people. The ldumeans, after their complaints in Jerusalem had not brought assistance,...
PHINEHAS B. ḤAMA – Palestinian amora of the fourth century; born probably in the town of Siknin, where he was living when his brother Samuel died (Midr. Shemuel ix.). He was a pupil of R. Jeremiah, of whose ritual practises he gives various...
PHINEHAS BEN JAIR – Tanna of the fourth generation; lived, probably at Lydda, in the second half of the second century; son-in-law of Simeon ben Yoḥai and a fellow disciple of Judah I. He was more celebrated for piety than for learning, although...
PHINEHAS B. SAMUEL – The last high priest; according to the reckoning of Josephus, the eighty-third since Aaron. He was a wholly unworthy person who was not of high-priestly lineage and who did not even know what the high priest's office was, but...
PHOCYLIDES – See Pseudo-Phocylides.
PHRYGIA – Province in Asia Minor. Antiochus the Great transferred 2,000 Jewish families from Mesopotamia and Babylonia to Phrygia and Lydia (Josephus, "Ant." xii. 3, § 4). They settled principally in Laodicea and Apamea. The Christian...
PHYLACTERIES – Legal View: Phylactery-Bag.(In the British Museum.)The laws governing the wearing of phylacteries were derived by the Rabbis from four Biblical passages (Deut. vi. 8, xi. 18; Ex. xiii. 9, 16). While these passages were...
PHYSICIAN – See Medicine.
PIATELLI – See Anaw.
PICART, BERNARD – Title-Page from the "Tiḳḳun Soferim," Designed by Bernard Picart.(From the Sulzberger collection in the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, New York.)French designer and engraver; born at Paris June 11, 1673; died at...
PICCIOTTO, HAIM MOSES – Communal worker; born at Aleppo 1806; died at London, England, Oct. 19, 1879. He was a member of an ancient Eastern family; his immediate ancestors were engaged in the Russian consular service. He went to England about 1843, and...
PICHLER, ADOLF – Austrian painter; born in 1834 at Cziffer, in the county of Presburg, Hungary. At the age of thirteen he went to Budapest, where he supported himself by tutoring while preparing himself to teach. After receiving his teacher's...
PICHON (PICHO), JOSEPH – Almoxarife" and "contador mayor" (i.e., tax-collector-in-chief) of the city and the archbishopric of Seville; appointed in 1369 by Henry II. of Castile, who esteemed him highly on account of his honesty and cleverness. But on...
PICHON (PITCHON), JOSEPH – Rabbinical author; lived in Turkey at the end of the seventeenth century. He was the author of "Minhage ha-Bediḳah be-'Ir Saloniḳi," a work relating to the method which was followed of making meat kasher in the slaughter-house...
PICK, AARON – Biblical scholar; born at Prague, where he was converted to Christianity and lectured on Hebrew at the university; lived in England during the first half of the nineteenth century. He was the author of translations and...
PICK, ALOIS – Austrian physician, medical author, and dramatist; born at Karolinenthal, near Prague, Bohemia, Oct. 15, 1859. He studied medicine at the universities of Prague and Vienna (M.D., Prague, 1883). The same year he joined the...
PICK, ARNOLD – Austrian psychiatrist; born at Gross-Meseritsch, Moravia, July 20, 1851; educated at Berlin and Vienna (M.D. 1875). He became assistant physician at the lunatic asylum at Wehnen, Oldenburg (1875), and at the state asylum at...
PICK, BEHRENDT – German numismatist and archeologist; born Dec. 21, 1861, at Posen. After passing through the Friedrich-Wilhelms Gymnasium of his native city, he went in 1880 to the University of Berlin (Ph.D. 1884), where he studied classical...
PICK, ISAIAH – See Berlin, Isaiah b. Loeb.
PICK, PHILIPP JOSEPH – Austrian dermatologist; born at Neustadt, Bohemia, Oct. 14, 1834. He studied natural sciences and medicine at Vienna (M.D. 1860) and acted as assistant in several university hospitals. In 1868 he removed to Prague and became...
PICO DE MIRANDOLA, COUNT GIO-VANNI FREDERICO (Prince of Concordia) – Italian philosopher, theologian, and cabalist; born Feb. 24, 1463, at Mirandola; died at Florence Nov. 17, 1494. Gifted with high intellectual powers, he commenced the study of theology at an early age, graduated from the...
PICTORIAL ART – There are no ancient remains showing in what way, if any, the Jews of Bible times made use of painting for decorative or other purposes. For the references in the Bible See Painting. During the Middle Ages painting was a craft...
PIDYON HA-BEN – See Primogenitcre.
PIERLEONI – Noble Roman family of Jewish origin. A Jewish banker of Rome who had acquired a princely fortune was baptized in the first half of the eleventh century, took the name of Benedictus Christianus, and married the daughter of a...
PIGEON – See Dove.