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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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PIGO – Italian family of rabbis. Formerly the name was as a rule transcribed Figo; in an Italian document of 1643 it appears in the form "Pichio"; and in Hebrew it is sometimes written . To this family belong Ephraim Pigo, a learned...
PI-HAHIROTH – A place in the wilderness where the Israelites encamped when they turned back from Etham. It lay between Migdol and the sea "before Baal-zephon" (Ex. xiv. 2, 9; Num. xxxiii. 7, 8). The etymology of the name, which is apparently...
PIKES, ABRAHAM B. ELIJAH HA-KOHEN – German rabbi; mentioned in "Liḳḳuṭe Maharil," hilkots "Shabbat" and "Yom Kippur." He addressed two letters to the community of Halberstadt, in which he discussed the commandments and prohibitions. He requested that his epistles...
PILATE, PONTIUS – Fifth Roman procurator of Judea, Samaria, and Idumæa, from 26 to 36 of the common era; successor of Valerius Gratus. According to Philo ("De Legatione ad Caium," ed. Mangey, ii. 590), his administration was characterized by...
PILEGESH – Biblical Data: A concubine recognized among the ancient Hebrews. She enjoyed the same rights in the house as the legitimate wife. Since it was regarded as the highest blessing to have many children, while the greatest curse was...
PILGRIMAGE – Pilgrimage to First Temple. A journey which is made to a shrine or sacred place in performance of a vow or for the sake of obtaining some form of divine blessing. Every male Israelite was required to visit the Temple three times...
PILLAR – The word "pillar" is used in the English versions of the Bible as an equivalent for the following Hebrew words:(1) "Omenot," feminine plural of the active participle of = "support," "confirm." This word occurs only in II Kings...
PILLAR OF FIRE – The Israelites during their wanderings through the desert were guided in the night-time by a pillar of fire to give them light (Ex. xiii. 21; Num. xiv. 14; Neh. ix. 12, 19). The pillar of fire never departed from them during the...
PILLITZ, DANIEL – See Bürger, Theodor.
PILPUL – A method of Talmudic study. The word is derived from the verb "pilpel" (lit. "to spice," "to season," and in a metaphorical sense, "to dispute violently" [Tosef., B. B. vii. 5] or "cleverly" [Shab. 31a; B. M. 85b]). Since by...
PILSEN – City in Bohemia. According to documents of the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries, Jews were then living in Pilsen, and they had a synagogue and a cemetery. In the sixteenth century they were expelled, as were the Jews of most...
PIMENTEL, SARA DE FONSECA PINA Y – Poetess of Spanish descent; lived in England in the early part of the eighteenth century, as did also Abraham Henriques Pimentel. She wrote "Espejo Fiel de Vidas" (London, 1720), laudatory Spanish verses on the Spanish metrical...
PIN – See Tent.
PINA, DE – Portuguese Marano family some members of which were able to escape the Inquisition and to confess Judaism openly in Amsterdam.Jacob (Manuel) de Pina: Spanish and Portuguese poet; born of Marano parents in Lisbon in 1616; went to...
PINCZOW, ELIEZER B. JUDAH – Polish rabbi; flourished at the end of the seventeenth century; grandson of R. Ẓebi Hirsch, rabbi of Lublin. He was rabbi of Pinczow and other places, and parnas at Cracow. Pinczow was the author of "Dammeseḳ Eli'ezer" (Jesnitz,...
PINCZOW, ELIJAH B. MOSES GER-SHON – Polish physician and Talmudist of the eighteenth century. He was the author of: "Meleket Maḥashebet," part i., "Ir Ḥeshbon" (Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1765), on arithmetic and algebra; part ii., "Berure ha-Middot" (Berlin, 1765),...
PINCZOW, JOSEPH B. JACOB – Polish rabbi and author; flourished in Poland in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries; descendant of R. Jacob Pollak, son-in-law of R. Moses Krämer, chief rabbi of Wilna, and pupil of Ẓebi Hirsch, rabbi of Lublin. Pinczow...
PINE (PNIE), SAMSON – German translator of the fourteenth century. He was probably born at Peine, a city in the province of Hanover, whencehis name is derived and where a Jewish community had existed from very early times. Later he lived at...
PINELES, HIRSCH MENDEL – Austrian scholar; born at Tysmenitz, Galicia, Dec. 21, 1805; died at Galatz, Rumania, Aug. 6, 1870. After having studied Talmud and rabbinics in his native town, Pineles at the age of fifteen removed to Brody, where he married....
PINERO (PINHEIROS), ARTHUR WING – English dramatist; born in London May 24, 1855; eldest son of John Daniel Pinero. He is descended from a Sephardic family. As a boy Pinero was articled to a firm of solicitors; and while in their office he absorbed much of that...
PINES, ELIJAH B. AARON – Rabbi at Shklov, government of Moghilef, Russia, in the eighteenth century; descendant of the families of Jacob Polak and Judah Löb Puchowitzer. He was the author of "Tanna debe Eliyahu" (Zolkiev, 1753), on religion and ethics,...
PINES, JEHIEL MICHAEL – Russian Talmudist and Hebraist; born at Rozhany, government of Grodno, Sept. 26, 1842. He was the son of Noah Pines and the son-in-law of Shemariah Luria, rabbi of Moghilef. After being educated in the local Hebrew school and in...
PINHAS, JACOB – German journalist and communal worker; born Aug., 1788; died in Cassel Dec. 8, 1861. He was the son of Salomon (1757-1837), a miniature-painter who had received special privileges exempting him from some of the Jewish...
PINHEIRO, MOSES – One of the most influential pupils and followers of Shabbethai Ẓebi; lived at Leghorn in the seventeenth century. He was held in high esteem on account of his acquirements; and, as the brother-in-law of Joseph Ergas, the...
PINḲES – Term generally denoting the register of any Jewish community, in which the proceedings of and events relating to the community are recorded. The word originally denoted a writing-tablet, of which, according to the Mishnah (Kelim...