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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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FRANKL, LUDWIG AUGUST, RITTER VON HOCHWART – Austrian poet and writer; born at Chrast, Bohemia, Feb. 3, 1810, died at Vienna March 12, 1894. He received his early education at the Piarists' gymnasium of Prague and at the Piarists' college of Leitomischl, his teacher in...
FRANKL, OTTO – Austrian jurist; born in Prague Oct. 4, 1855; studied at the universities of Prague, Göttingen, and Leipsic; made privat-docent (1883), and professor of law at Prague (1891). His principal sphere lies in mining and bankruptcy...
FRANKL, PINKUS FRIEDRICH – German rabbi; born at Ungarisch-Brod, Moravia, Jan., 1848; died at Johannisbad Aug. 22, 1887. After attending the yeshibah at Presburg, Frankl prepared himself for the rabbinate at the seminary in Breslau, and at the same time...
FRANKL-GRÜN, ADOLF – Austrian rabbi; born at Ungarisch-Brod, Moravia, Jan. 21, 1847. He received his education at the schools of his native town, at Leipnik, and at Eisenstadt (Hungary), where he became teacher of Hebrew at Dr. Hildesheimer's...
FRANKLIN, BENJAMIN A. – Jamaica merchant; born at Manchester, England, 1811; died at Kingston, Jamaica, April 26, 1888. He went to the island about the year 1837, and engaged in business, becoming a magistrate and consul for Denmark. The tonnage dues...
FRANKLIN, FABIAN – American mathematician, editor, and author; born in Eger, Hungary, Jan. 18, 1853; son of Morris Joshua and Sarah Heilprin, of a family which has had several distinguished representatives in the United States. He was graduated...
FRANKLIN, JACOB ABRAHAM – English journalist and philanthropist; born at Portsmouth 1809; died Aug. 3, 1877. On his retirement from business he went to London and took an active part in communal affairs there. He established a weekly periodical, "The...
FRANKS – American Jewish family which included a number of officers of some distinction engaged on both sides in the American Revolutionary war. The earliest known member appears to have been Jacob Franks, a merchant who settled in New...
FRANZOS, KARL EMIL – Austrian author; born Oct. 25, 1848, in the Russian government of Podolia. His childhood was spent at Czortkow, Galicia, the "Barnow" of his stories. Franzos attended the German gymnasium at Czernowitz and studied law at the...
FRAT MAIMON – Provençal scholar; flourished in the second half of the fourteenth century. The name "Frat" is, according to Neubauer, abbreviated from "Frater." Frat Maimon was the author of four works, which are known only by quotations made...
FRATERNITATEA – See Periodicals.
FRATERNITIES – Societies for mutual benefit. If it be true that "the origin of the friendly society is probably in all countries the burial club" ("Encyc. Brit." ix. 780), Jewish organizations of that nature may be traced back nearly two...
FRAUD AND MISTAKE – Where in a transaction one of the parties loses by the fraud, i.e., the misrepresentation, of the other, or by his suppression of the truth, the law gives relief either by rescinding the contract or by awarding damages. In some...
FRAUENSCHUL – That part of the synagogue which is reserved for women, whether an annex, as in the Altneuschul of Prague and in the synagogue of Worms, or a gallery; the latter is generally in the rear of the building, on the west side, but...
FRAUENSTÄDT, CHRISTIAN MARTIN JULIUS – German student of philosophy; born at Bojanowo, Posen, April 17, 1813; died at Berlin Jan. 13, 1879. He was educated at the house of his uncle at Neisse, and embraced Christianity in 1833. Studying theology and, later,...
FRAUENTHAL, MAX – American soldier; born at Marienthal, Rheinpfalz, Bavaria, in 1836; emigrated to America in 1851; lived for a time in Texas and Louisiana, finally settling in Brookhaven, Miss. On the outbreak of the Civil war he, with several...
FREDERICK II – King of Prussia; born 1712; reigned from 1740 till his death in 1786. He was not friendly to the Jews, although he issued a "Schutzjude" patent to Moses Mendelssohn in October, 1763.The "General-privilegium", 1750. During the...
FREEMASONRY – The institutions, rites, and principles of a secret society devoted to the promotion of fraternal feeling and morality among the members of the order. In its modern form it appears to have arisen in London in 1717, and thence...
FREETHINKERS AND FREETHOUGHT – See Rationalists; Skeptics.
FREE WILL – The doctrine that volition is self-originating and unpredictable. That man is free to choose between certain courses of conduct was regarded by rabbinical Judaism as a fundamental principle of the Jewish religion. Although...
FREE-WILL OFFERING – A term applied to gifts presented out of the benevolence or religious impulse of heart of the giver, and not in fulfilment of any obligation, promise, or vow. It is used as the term for the contributions of Israel to the...
FREIDUS, ABRAHAM SOLOMON – Bibliographer; born in Riga, Russia, May 1, 1867. He went to Paris in 1886, and thence to the United States in the autumn of 1889. In March, 1897, he entered the service of the New York Public Library as assistant cataloguer,...
FREIHEIM, J. B. – American lawyer and soldier; born in Bavaria 1848; died at Camden, Ark., Aug. 22, 1899. Freiheim was an early Jewish resident of Louisiana, where he was reared. He studied at the Louisiana State Military Academy, and at the...
FREIMANN, AARON – German librarian and historian; born Aug. 5, 1871, at Filehne, Posen. He is the son of Israel Meïr Freimann, and grandson, on his mother's side, of the chief rabbi of Altona, Jacob Ettlinger. He attended the high school of...
FREIMANN, ISRAEL MEÏR – German rabbi; born Sept. 27, 1830, at Cracow; died Aug. 21, 1884, at Ostrowo, He received his education from his father and in various Talmudical schools of Hungary. After a short stay in Leipsic (1850) he went to Breslau; from...