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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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SANDEK (SYNDIKUS) – See Godfather.
SANDERS, DANIEL – German lexicographer; born in Altstrelitz, Mecklenburg, April 12, 1819; died March 12, 1897. He received his early education in the Jewish school of his native city, under I. Lehfeldt (later a partner of his brother-in-law,...
SÁNDOR, PAUL – Hungarian merchant and deputy; born in 1860 at Hodmezövásárhely; studied at the academies of commerce in Budapest and Dresden. He is a member of the municipal council and of the Chamber of Commerce and Industry of Budapest. In...
SANGER, ADOLPH L. – American lawyer and politician; born at Baton Rouge, La., in 1842; died in New York city Jan. 3, 1894. A graduate of the City College and of the Columbia Law School, New York, in 1864, he had rapid success as a lawyer. In 1870...
SANHEDRIN – Hebrew-Aramaic term originally designating only the assembly at Jerusalem that constituted the highest political magistracy of the country. It was derived from the Greek συνέδριον. Josephus uses συνέδριον for the first time in...
SANHEDRIN – Name of a treatise of the Mishnah, Tosefta, and both Talmudim. It stands fourth in the order Neziḳin in most editions, and is divided into eleven chapters containing seventy-one paragraphs in all. It treats chiefly of courtsand...
SANHEDRIN, FRENCH – Jewish high court convened by Napoleon I. to give legal sanction to the principles expressed by the Assembly of Notables in answer to the twelve questions submitted to it by the government (see Jew. Encyc. v. 468, s.v. France)....
SANITATION – See Health Laws.
SANTA MARIA – See Paul de Burgos.
SANTANGEL (SANCTO ANGELOS), LUIS (AZARIAS) DE – 1. Marano and learned jurist of Calatayud, Spain; died before 1459. He was converted by the sermons of Vicente Ferrer, and was made magistrate ("zalmedina") of the capital of Aragon. The name Luis de Santangel was borne also by...
SANTAREM – City of Portugal. Even before its conquest by the Portuguese in 1140, it possessed a Jewry, situated near the Church of S. Ildefonso. It is now more than two centuries since this ceased to exist. The synagogue of Santarem was...
SANTOB (SHEM-ṬOB) DE CARRION – Spanish poet; born toward the end of the thirteenth century at Carrion de los Condes, a town in Castile, whence his cognomen. He lived in the reigns of Alfonso XI. and his son and successor Pedro, with both of whom he was in...
SANUA, JAMES – Egyptian publicist; born at Cairo April, 1839. He studied in Egypt and in Italy, and at the age of sixteen commenced to contribute articles to Arabic, French, Italian, and English newspapers. In 1863 he became professor at the...
SAPHIR, JACOB – Rabbi and traveler of Rumanian descent; born in 1822 at Oshmiany, government of Wilna; died in Jerusalem 1886. While still a boy he went to Palestine with his parents, who settled at Safed; and at their death (in 1836) he...
SAPHIR, MORITZ GOTTLIEB – Hungarian humorist; born at Lovas-Berény Feb. 8, 1795; died at Baden, near Vienna, Sept. 5, 1858. In 1806 he went to Prague to study the Talmud; but, feeling a deeper interest in German literature, he settled in Pesth in 1814,...
SAPHIR, SIGMUND – Hungarian journalist; born in Hungary 1806 (according to some, 1801); died at Pesth Oct. 17, 1866. He edited several German papers in that city, among them the "Pesther Tageblatt" (1839-45), to which his uncle, the humorist,...
SAPPHIRE – A highly prized sky-blue precious stone, frequently mentioned in the Old Testament and Apocrypha (Ex. xxiv. 10, xxviii. 18, xxxix. 11; Job xxviii. 6, 16; Cant. v. 14; Lam. iv. 7; Isa. liv. 11; Ezek. i. 26, x. 1, xxviii. 13;...
SAR SHALOM BEN BOAZ – Gaon of Sura, where he died about 859 or 864, having held the gaonate for ten years. He succeeded Kohen Ẓedeḳ I., and was in turn succeeded by Naṭronai b. Hilai. He left more than 100 responsa, a great many of which are to be...
SARAGOSSA – Under the Spaniards. Capital of the former kingdom of Aragon. The city is situated on the Ebro, which is crossed by a long stone bridge constructed with the municipal fees received from the miḳweh during the two years beginning...
SARAGOSSI, JOSEPH – Talmudist and cabalist of the fifteenth and sixteenth centuries. On being banished from Spain in 1492 he went successively to Sicily, Beirut, and Sidon. He resided in Sidon for some time, and finally settled at Safed, wherehe...
SARAH (SARAI) – Biblical Data: Wife of Abraham, who for a long period remained childless (Gen. xi. 29-30). She accompanied her husband from Haran to Canaan (ib. xii. 5). Driven by famine to take refuge in Egypt, Abraham, fearing that her beauty...
SARAH COPIA SHULAM – See Sullam, Sara Copia.
SARAJEVO – Capital of Bosnia. For the history of its Jewish community till 1850 see Bosnia.About 1850 Omar Pasha (Michael Lattas) granted the Jews of Sarajevo the right to settle in any part of the city. Down to 1878, when Austria-Hungary...
SARASOHN, KASRIEL H. – American journalist; born in Paiser, Russian Poland, 1835; died at New York city Jan. 12, 1905. He studied at home and prepared himself for the rabbinate; but in 1866 he abandoned this intention and emigrated to the United...
SARATOF – So-Called Confession. Ark of the Law in the Synagogue at Sarajevo.(From a photograph.)Russian city, in the government of the same name; situated on the right bank of the Volga. The city is chiefly memorable for the "Saratof...