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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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SAUL – Biblical Data: The first king of all Israel. He was the son of Kish, "a Benjamite, a mighty man of valor" (I Sam. ix. 1). For many years Israel had been ruled by judges, and had suffered many and severe sorrows at the hands of...
SAUL – Karaite leader; son and successor of Anan ben David; died about 780. He is styled by the later Karaites "nasi" (prince) and "rosh hagolah" (exilarch). Saul's activity was comparatively unimportant. He is mentioned by Solomon b....
SAUL, ABBA – Tanna of the third generation. In Ab. R. N. xxix. mention is made of an Abba Saul b. Nanos whom Lewy ("Ueber Einige Fragmente aus der Mischnah des Abba Saul," in "Berichte über die Hochschule für die Wissenschaft des Judenthums...
SAUL, ABBA, B. BAṬNIT – Tanna of the second and first centuries B.C. According to Derenbourg, his mother was a Batanian proselyte, whence he derived his name "ben Baṭnit"; it appears from Ned. 23a, however, that "Baṭnit" is a masculine proper name....
SAUL B. ARYEH – See Löwenstamm, Saul.
SAUL COHEN ASHKENAZI – See Ashkenazi, Saul Cohen.
SAUL BEN DAVID – Russian rabbi; died 1623. He was the author of: "Ṭal Orot" (Prague, 1615), treatise, in verse, on the thirty-nine principal classes of work forbidden on Saturday, with an appendix entitled "Ḥiddushe 'Erubin," discussions on...
SAUL BEN JOSEPH OF MONTEUX – French liturgical poet; lived at Carpentras in the second half of the seventeenth century. The ritual of Avignon contains a piyyuṭ which he composed upon the deliverance of the Jews of Carpentras from the riot that broke out on...
SAUL OF TARSUS – The actual founder of the Christian Church as opposed to Judaism; born before 10 C.E.; died after 63. The records containing the views and opinions of the opponents of Paul and Paulinism are no longer in existence; and the...
SAUL WAHL – See Wahl, Saul.
SAULCY, LOUIS FÉLICIEN JOSEPH CAIGNART DE – Christian archeologist and numismatist; born at Lille March 19, 1807; died in Paris Nov. 5, 1880. He first adopted a military career, and in this way became custos of the Museum of Artillery, Paris, in 1842. He then made a...
SAVANNAH – Important commercial city of Chatham county, Georgia; situated on the Savannah River. It was founded in 1733 by Gen. James Oglethorpe, and received its charter about half a century later (1789). It constituted the central point...
SAVIOR – See Messiah.
SAVOY – A Refuge from France. Ancient independent duchy; part of the kingdom of Sardinia from 1720; ceded to France in 1860; and now (1905) forming the departments of Savoie and Haute-Savoie. When in 1182 the Jews were expelled from...
SAX, JULIUS – Electrical engineer; born at Sugarre, Russia, 1824; died in London Aug., 1890. He emigrated to England in 1851, and started a business for the manufacture of scientific instruments, being employed by the master of the royal mint...
SAXE-ALTENBURG, -COBURG-GOTHA, -MEININGEN,-WEIMAR – See Saxon Duchies.
SAXON DUCHIES – The four Saxon duchies are those of Saxe-Altenburg, Saxe-Coburg-Gotha, Saxe-Meiningen, and Saxe-Weimar.Saxe-Altenburg: Duchy in Thuringia; an independent division of the German empire. It has a total population of 194,914, of...
SAXONY – Kingdom of the German empire. Jews are reported to have appeared in Saxony before the year 1000, in the train of the Lombards, settling principally in the cities of Merseburg, Naumburg, Torgau, and Meissen (B. Lindau, "Gesch....
SAYCE, ARCHIBALD HENRY – English archeologist; born at Shirehampton Sept. 25, 1846; educated at Grosvenor College, Bath, and Queen's College, Oxford, becoming fellow in the latter in 1869 and tutor in 1870. He was deputy professor of comparative...
SCALA NOVA – Important city of Anatolia opposite the island of Samos; seaport of Ephesus. The oldest epitaph in the Jewish cemetery is dated 1682; but the town evidently had Jewish inhabitants in the thirteenth century, for in 1307 a number...
SCAPEGOAT – See Azazel.
SCEPTER – See Staff.
SCHAFFER, SCHEPSEL – American rabbi; born May 4, 1862, at Bausk, Courland, Russia; descendant of Mordecai Jaffe, author of the "Lebush." He was educated at the gymnasium of Libau, Courland, at the University of Berlin (Ph. D.), and at the Rabbinical...
SCHAIKEWITZ, NAHUM MEÏR (SHOMER) – Russian Judæo-German novelist and play-wright; born at Nesvizh, government of Minsk, Dec. 18, 1849. Schaikewitz distinguished himself as a clever story-teller even as a boy. His first literary efforts took the form of short...
SCHAPIRA, HERMANN – Russian mathematician; born in 1840 at Erswilken, near Tauroggen, a small town in Lithuania; died at Cologne May 8, 1898, Educated for the rabbinate, he had been appointed to a rabbinical position at the age of twenty-four, when...