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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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AIRE – A fortified town on the river Adour, in southern France. There is no certainty that a Jewish community ever existed here; but about the middle of the thirteenth century a Hebrew poet composed a eulogy on his native town which,...
AIX – A town in the department of Bouches-du-Rhône, France, the Aquæ Sextiæ of the Romans, and for a short period the capital of Provence. It is variously transcribed in Hebrew, and is sometimes translated in Hebrew literature by "'Ir...
AIX-LA-CHAPELLE (AACHEN) – A city in Rhenish Prussia, in which a Jewish settlement flourished during the time of the Roman empire. In the Carlovingian period there was a colony of Jews near the royal palace; and the Jewish merchants of Aix-la-Chapelle are...
AJALON – General View of Yâlo—the Ancient Ajalon—Palestine.(From a photograph.)A city in Palestine, from which the adjacent "Valley of Ajalon" took its name (Josh. x. 12). Its location is identical with that of the present Yâlo, a small...
AJAS – See Ayas.
AKABAH, PALESTINE – See Eloth.
'AKABIA BEN MAHALALEL – A religious teacher, probably of the second tannaitic generation (first and second centuries). Of his early history nothing is known; his teachers are nowhere named; and of his sayings comparatively few have been preserved...
AKBARITES – See Okbarites.
AḳDAMUT – A mystical poem, written in Aramaic by Meir ben Isaac Nehorai, which is in the Ashkenazic usage interpolated after the opening verse of the lesson from the Law on the first day of the Feast of Weeks. It is traditionally...
'AḳEDAH – This Biblical incident plays an important part in the Jewish liturgy. The earliest allusion to it in prayer occurs in the Mishnah (Ta'anit, ii. 4) in the litany for public fast-days, "May He who answered Abraham on Mount Moriah...
AKERMAN, RACHEL – The earliest Jewess to write German poetry; born probably at Vienna, 1522; died at Iglau, Moravia, 1544. She appears to have received an excellent education, having studied both Latin and Greek. She soon exhibited poetical...
AKHALTZYK – A fortified town of Transcaucasia, in the government of Tiflis, on an affluent of the Kur, 110 miles west of Tiflis. Of the 26,000 inhabitants about 3,000 are Jews; some of thembeing very old settlers, while others emigrated...
AKIBA BAER BEN JOSEPH (SIMON, AKIBA BAER) – Son of Joseph Ḥanoks, a Talmudist and cabalistic writer, one of the refugees who, at the expulsion of the Jews from Vienna in 1670, went to Bavaria, to promote Talmudical learning among their brethren in their new home. Being...
AKIBA EGER THE ELDER, OF PRESBURG – See Eger, Akiba, the Elder, of Presburg.
AKIBA EGER THE YOUNGER, OF POSEN – See Eger, Akiba, the Younger, of Posen.
AKIBA FRANKFURT – See Frankfurt, Akiba.
AKIBA BEN JOSEPH – Palestinian tanna; born about 50; martyred about 132. A full history of Akiba, based upon authentic sources, will probably never be written, although he, to a degree beyond any other, deserves to be called the father of...
AKIBA BEN JOSEPH, ALPHABET OF – The title of a Midrash on the names of the letters of the Hebrew alphabet. Two versions or portions of the same exist: Version A, considered by Jellinek to be the older form, by Bloch thought to be of a much more recent origin,...
AKIBA [BEN JOSEPH]'S BOOK ON LETTER-ORNAMENTS – According to the Haggadah (Men. 29b), Akiba found a significance in every little ornament or flourish upon the letters of the Torah; to him therefore a Midrash has been ascribed, which treats of the little curves or...
AKIBA BEN JUDAH LOEB – A German rabbi, who lived at Lehren-Steinsfeld, Württemberg, in the beginning of the eighteenth century. He wrote "Ha-Ohel'Olam" (Everlasting Tent), containing novellæ on the Talmudic treatise Ketubot (Frankfort-on-the-Main,...
AKIBA HA-KOHEN, OF OFEN – An eminent scholar, who lived in Hungary and Bohemia in the second half of the fifteenth century; died at Prague 1496. His learning, wealth, and benevolence secured for him the title "Nasi" (Prince), and an influential position...
AKIBA TRANI B. ELIJAH OF METZ – Glossarist who lived in the eighteenth century. A collection of his casuistic glosses to the Talmudic treatises Zebaḥim and Menaḥot, still extant, was published in Metz, 1767, under the title "Ma'yan Ganim" (The Fountain of...
AKKAD – See Accad.
AKKERMAN – District, town, and village in the government of Bessarabia, Russia, on the right bank of the Dniester estuary, twenty-seven miles southwest of Odessa. The Jewish population in the town in 1897 was 4,846, in the village 1,136,...
AKKEZ – See Hakkoz.