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ALEXANDER, ISAAC – German author; lived in South Germany in the second half of the eighteenth century, and wrote on philosophical subjects from a rationalistic point of view. His works include: "Von dem Dasein Gottes, die Selbstredende Vernunft,"...
ALEXANDER JAGELLON – Instability of His Character. Grand duke of Lithuania and king of Poland; born 1460; died at Wilna, 1506. He was the son of King Casimir IV. He ascended the throne of Lithuania in 1492, and that of Poland upon the death of his...
ALEXANDER JANNÆUS (Jonathan) – King of Judea; born about 126 B.C.; died 76 B.C. He was the third son of John Hyrcanus, by his second wife, and ascended the throne in the year 102 B.C. He was always badly treated by his fathern order thereby to enhance the...
ALEXANDER, LIONEL LINDO – Political and communal worker; born in London May 14, 1852; died Jan. 31, 1901. He was educated at the St. Marylebone's and City of London schools. For nine years (1884-92) he filled the position of honorary secretary to the...
ALEXANDER LYSIMACHUS – Alabarch; brother of the philosopher Philo, and father of Julius Alexander and Tiberius Julius Alexander. He held office under the emperors Tiberius and Claudius. He was imprisoned by Caligula, but was released and restored to...
ALEXANDER, MAURICE ALEXANDER – An Australian politician; born in London, Nov. 30, 1820; died in Sydney, N. S. W., January 27, 1874. He arrived in Sydney in 1834, and from the year 1863 represented Goulburn in the New South Wales House of Assembly. He acquired...
ALEXANDER, MICHAEL SOLOMON – First Anglican bishop of Jerusalem; born of Jewish parents at Schönlanke, in the grand duchy of Posen, May, 1799; died at Belbeis, Egypt, November 23, 1845. His training was strictly orthodox, and at the age of sixteen he became...
ALEXANDER OF MILETUS – Flourished between 105 and 40 B.C. He was the author of a book entitled Περὶ Ιονδαίων ("Upon the Jews"). This work, of which only a few fragments have been preserved, quoted in the works of Eusebius and Clement of Alexandria,...
ALEXANDER (SENDER) BEN MORDECAI – Associate rabbi of Prague in the second half of the seventeenth century. His work, "Sheḥiṭot u-BediḲot," in Hebrew and Judæo-German (Amsterdam, 1667), deals, as its title implies, with the precepts on the slaughtering of cattle...
ALEXANDER BEN MOSES ETHAUSEN – See Ethausen,Alexander ben Moses.
ALEXANDER, SAMUEL – Metaphysician and psychologist; born in Sydney, New South Wales, July 6, 1859. He was educated at Wesley College, Melbourne, after which he attended the Melbourne University, where he made an excellent academic record, and in...
ALEXANDER SEVERUS – Roman emperor from 222 to 235; was especially friendly to both Jews and Christians. It was on this account, and not because of his Syrian descent, that the mocking inhabitants of Antioch and Alexandria, while celebrating their...
ALEXANDER (SENDER) SHOR – See Shor, Alexander.
ALEXANDER SUSLIN HA-KOHEN OF FRANKFORT – Aguddah." One of the most important Talmudists of his time; flourished in the first half of the fourteenth century. He was rabbi first in Cologne and Worms, and then moved to Frankfort-on-the-Main, where he died some time before...
ALEXANDER ÜSSKIND BEN MOSES OF GRODNO – A great cabalist of the eighteenth century; died at Grodno, Lithuania, in 1794. He wrote "Yesod we-Shoresh ha-'Abodah" (The Essence and Root of Worship), Novydvor, 1782, a work frequently republished. It contains directions for...
ALEXANDER SUuml;SSKIND BEN MOSES KANTSHIGER – Biblical scholar of the eighteenth century. He was the author of "Miẓnefet Bad" (The Linen Miter), Zolkiev, 1747, a series of dissertations on the arrangement of the Pentateuch, divided according to the weekly sections. He...
ALEXANDER SUuml;SSKIND BEN SAMUEL ZANWIL – A grammarian and cabalist; born at Metz about the end of the seventeenth century. In 1717-18 he published at Köthen (Anhalt, Germany) a work on Hebrew grammar, entitled "Derek ha-ḳodesh" (The Sacred Way); appended to it is a...
ALEXANDER, TIBERIUS JULIUS – Roman general of the first century; son of the alabarch Alexander, who gave him the name of Tiberius, probably in honor of the emperor Tiberius; but he himself assumed the name of Julius out of compliment to the reigning family...
ALEXANDER ZABINAS – King of Syria, 124-122 B.C. He was the young son of a merchant, but he allowed himself to be proclaimed by the Egyptian king Ptolemy Physcon as an adopted son of King Antiochus VII., Sidetes, of Syria, and became the ruler of...
ALEXANDER THE ZEALOT – One of the chiefs of the political party of Zealots about the year 50 of the common era. Led by him and his colleague Eleazar, an armed body of Jews fell upon the city of Samaria, pitilessly massacring old men, women, and...
ALEXANDERSOHN, JONATHAN – German rabbi; born at Grätz, in Posen, about the beginning of the nineteenth century; died at Altofen (Old Buda), Hungary, Nov. 24, 1869. About 1830 he was rabbi in Schwerin-on-the-Warthe, whence he removed to Hungary. Here Götz...
ALEXANDERSON (BEN ALEXANDER), DANIEL – Theological writer of the seventeenth century. He embraced the Christian faith at Rouen (France) on April 21, 1621, and wrote in Syriac (rabbinic?) an open letter, setting forth the reason of his abandoning Judaism and calling...
ALEXANDRA – Daughter of King Aristobulus II.; brought to Rome with her parents and brothers as prisoners of war by Pompey in the year 63 B.C. She was liberated by the senate in the year 56 B.C., it being held sufficient to detain...
ALEXANDRA – Daughter of Hyrcanus II., and wife of Alexander, son of Aristobulus II. She was one of the strongest and shrewdest supporters of the Hasmoneans at the court of Herod. When Hyrcanus was humiliated by Herod, on the occasion of the...
ALEXANDRA – Palestinian haggadist of the fourth century, contemporary of R. Levi. Commenting on Cant. iii. 1, R. Levi observes: "The congregation of Israel says to the Holy One—blessed be He!—'Lord of the Universe! In the past Thou wert...