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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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VENDOR AND PURCHASER – See Sale.
VENETIANER, LUDWIG – Hungarian rabbi and writer; born May 19, 1867, at Kecskemet. He studied at the rabbinical seminary and the University of Budapest, and at the Jewish Theological Seminary and the University of Breslau, 1888-89 (Ph.D. 1890,...
VENEZIANI, EMMANUEL FELIX – French philanthropist; born at Leghorn in 1825; died at Paris Feb. 5, 1889. At an early age he went to Constantinople, where he became the manager of the Banque Camondo and president of the committee of the Alliance Israélite...
VENICE – Italian city; formerly capital of a republic embracing northeastern Italy and some islands in the Mediterranean. The first Venetian document, so far as known, in which Jews are mentioned is a decree of the Senate, dated 945,...
VENTURA – Family of rabbis and scholars prominent in Italy and Greece in the sixteenth, seventeenth, and eighteenth centuries.Eliezer ben Samuel Ventura: Italian scholar of the sixteenth century; born at Da Porta, province of Perugia;...
VENTURA, RUBINO – Soldier; born at Finale, Modena, 1795; died at Toulouse, France, April 5, 1858. At the age of seventeen he was enrolled as a volunteer in the militia of the kingdom of Italy. On the downfall of Napoleon he returned to his home;...
VENTURE, MARDOCHÉE – French scholar; flourished at Avignon in the latter part of the eighteenth century. In collaboration with Isaiah Vidal he composed the "Seder ha-Ḳonṭres" (Avignon, 1765), a collection of liturgical chants for the use of the Jews...
VERA Y ALARCON, LOPE DE – Spanish martyr and knight ("caballero i mui emparentado," as he is designated by a contemporary) of noble family; born about 1619 at San Clemente la Mancha; died July 25, 1644, at Valladolid. Through his study of the Hebrew...
VERBAND DER VEREINE FÜR JÜDISCHE GESCHICHTE UND LITERATUR IN DEUTSCHLAND – See Verein Für Jüdische Geschichte und Literatur.
VERBLOVSKI, GREGORI LEONTYEVICH – Russian jurist; born in the first quarter of the nineteenth century; died at Moscow 1900. He studied law at the University of St. Petersburg, from which he graduated in 1866. Verblovski was one of the first secretaries of the...
VERCELLI – City in the compartimento of Piedmont, Italy. The oldest document in existence concerning its Jews is dated Feb. 16, 1446, and consists of a permit granted by the city council to one Abramo della Vigneria and his son Angelo to...
VERDICT – See Judgment.
VERDUN – Capital of the department of Meuse, France. Jews resided there from the twelfth century; and among the scholars of the city may be mentioned the tosafist Samuel b. Ḥayyim (Tosef., Yeb. 65a, 66b; Tosef., M. Ḳ. 23a; Tosef., B. Ḳ....
VEREIN ZUR ABWEHR DES ANTI-SEMITISMUS – Name of two societies for combating anti-Semitism. The first was formed in Berlin toward the end of 1890 by twelve men who issued an appeal to the German people, calling upon Jews and Christians alike to fight the excesses of...
VEREIN FÜR CULTUR UND WISSENSCHAFT DER JUDEN – Society founded at Berlin (Nov. 27, 1819) by Leopold Zunz, Eduard Gans, and Moses Moser. The objects of the society were to improve the social position of the Jews and tocheck the conversions to Christianity which at that time...
VEREIN FÜR JÜDISCHE GESCHICHTE UND LITERATUR – Name of societies founded in many German cities since about 1890 for the spread of the study of Jewish history and literature. Although certain societies of the kind had existed earlier, the first impetus was given to the...
VÉRITÉ ISRAÉLITE, LA – See Periodicals.
VERONA – Chief city of the Italian province of the same name. As early as the tenth century it numbered Jews among its inhabitants. They appear to have been treated with great harshness by Archbishop Raterio, and were later expelled from...
VERSE-DIVISION – Chapter-Divisions Christian. The system of breaking up the Biblical text into verses may seem, both in the original and in the versions, to go hand in hand with its division into chapters. In truth, however, the chapter-division...
VERSICLE THEMES – See Ḳerobot; Seliḥah.