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PICTORIAL ART:

There are no ancient remains showing in what way, if any, the Jews of Bible times made use of painting for decorative or other purposes. For the references in the Bible See Painting. During the Middle Ages painting was a craft which was monopolized by the gilds, and Jews were thereby prevented from showing any proficiency in the art. The only direction in which the latter evidenced any skill was in the illumination of manuscripts (see Manuscripts).

In modern times painting was at first mainly directed to sacerdotal, decorative purposes, but Jews were precluded from thus employing it, even in their own synagogues, by the rabbinical interpretation of the second commandment. It is not, therefore surprising that it is only with emancipation that any Jewish names are found in the annals of painting. During the last 150 years a certain number of Jews have displayed considerable skill as artists, chief among them being Joseph Israels in Holland. A few Jewish painters, prominent among whom are S. J. Solomon in England and E. M. Lilien in Germany, have in recent years devoted their talent to specifically Jewish subjects. The following is a partial list of Jewish painters who have distinguished themselves in modern times:

America:

Max Rosenthal (b. 1833), historical portraits; Max Weyl (b. 1837), landscapes; Henry Mosler (b. 1841), genre and portraits; Toby Edward Rosenthal (b. 1848), genre; Herman Naphtali Hyneman (b. 1849), genre; Katherine M. Cohen (b. 1859), portraits; George da Maduro Peixotto (b. 1859), portraits and mural decorations; Albert Rosenthal (b. 1863), portrait-etching; Albert Edward Sterner (b. 1863), genre and water colors; Louis Loeb (b. 1866), landscapes and portraits; Augustus Koopman (b. 1869), genre and portraits; Leo Mielziner (b. 1869), portraits; Louis Kronberg (b. 1872), portraits; Edmond Weill (b. 1872), genre; J. Campbell Phillips (b. 1873), negro life, and portraits; J. Mortimer Lichtenauer (b. 1876), mural decorations.

Austria-Hungary:

Anton Rafael Mengs (1728-1779), historical, genre, and portraits; Friedrich Friedländer (b. 1825), military subjects and portraits; Adolf Pichler (b. 1834), historical; Leopold Horowitz (b. 1837), portraits and subjects from Jewish life; Lajos Bruck (b. 1846), subjects from Hungarian folk-life and portraits; Karl Karger (b. 1848), genre; Joseph Köves (b. 1853), portraits and genre; Isidor Kaufmann (b. 1853), subjects from Jewish life and genre; Gustav Mannheimer (b. 1854), landscapes; Camilla Friedländer (b. 1856; daughter of Friedrich Friedländer), still life; Ernst Berger (b. 1857), Biblical subjects; Gyula Basch (b. 1859), genre and portraits; Adolf Hirschl (b. 1860), historical; Alexander Nyári (b. 1861); Max Bruck (b. 1863), genre; Adolf Fényes (b. 1867), genre; Philip László (b. 1869), portraits; Karl Reinhard (b. 1872), genre; Arpád Basch (b. 1873), water-colors; Leopold Pollak (1806-80), genre and portraits.

Denmark:

Ismael Israel Mengs (1690-1765), miniature and enamel; Karl Heinrich Bloch (b. 1834), scenic and genre; Ernst Meyer (1797-1861), genre; David Monies (1812-94), historical, genre, and portraits; Geskel Saloman (1821-1902), genre.

England:

B. S. Marks (b. 1827), portraits; Felix Moscheles (b. 1833); Carl Schloesser (b. 1836); Simeon Solomon (c. 1850), Preraffaelite; Solomon J. Solomon, A.R.A. (b. 1860), genre and portraits; Alfred Praga (b. 1860), genre and miniature; Abraham Solomon (1824-63); Isaac Snowman (b. 1874); Ellen Gertrude Cohen (b. 1876), portraits and genre; Solomon Alexander Hart, R.A. (1806-81), scenic, genre, and portraits; Lionel Cowen (1846-95).

France:

Félix Dias (1794-1817); Emile Lévy (b. 1826), subjects from Jewish religious history; Jacob Emile Edouard Brandon (b. 1831), genre; Constant Mayer (b. 1832), genre and portraits; Jules Worms (b. 1832), humoristic genre; Zacharie Astruc (b. 1839), genre and panels in water-color; Henri Léopold Lévy (b. 1840), historical and genre; Alphonse Lévy (b. 1843), Jewish life; Leo Herrmann (b. 1853), genre; Ferdinand Heilbuth (1826-79),genre and portraits; Alphonse Hirsch (1843-84), genre and portraits; Henry Baron (1816-85), historical and genre; Auguste Hadamard (1823-86), genre; Benjamin Eugène Fichel (1826-95), historical and genre; Eugène Alcan (1811-98). genre.

Germany:

Philipp Arons (b. 1821), portraits; Rudolf Jonas (b. 1822), landscapes; Louis Katzenstein (b. 1824), portraits; Karl Daniel Friedrich Bach (1756-1829), historical, genre, animals, and portraits; Moses Samuel Löwe (1756-1831), miniature and pastels; Felix Possart (b. 1837), landscapes and genre; Hermann Junker (b. 1838), subjects from Jewish life; Julius Bodenstein (b. 1847), landscapes; Jeremiah David Alexander Fiorino (1796-1847), miniature; Max Liebermann (b. 1849), scenic and genre; Rudolf Christian Eugen Bendemann (b. 1851), historical, genre, and mural decorations; Karl Jacoby (b. 1853), historical and genre; Felix Borchardt (b. 1857), scenic and portraits; Max Kahn (b. 1857), genre; Wilhelm Feldmann (b. 1859), landscapes; Karl Blosz (b. 1860), genre; Julius Muhr (1819-1865), genre; Hermann Goldschmidt (1802-66), historical; Eduard Magnus (1799-1872), portraits and genre; Johannes Veit (1790-1854) and Philipp Veit (1793-1877), religious, historical, and genre; Julius Jacob (1811-1882), landscapes and portraits; Moritz Daniel Oppenheim (1801-82), subjects from Jewish life, portraits, and genre; Benjamin Ulmann (1829-84), historical; Eduard Julius Friedrich Bendemann (1811-89), Biblical subjects, portraits, and genre; Max Michael (1823-91), genre; Alfred Rethel (1816-59) and Otto Rethel (1822-92), frescos, historical, and genre; Karl Morgenstern (1812-93), landscapes; Friedrich Kraus (1826-94), portraits and genre; Louis Neustätter (1829-99), genre and portraits; Solomon Hirschfelder (1832-1903), genre.

Holland:

Joseph Israels (b. 1824), genre; David Bles (1821-99), genre.

Italy:

Raphael Bachi (c. 1750), miniature; Tullo Massarani (b. 1826), genre; Giuseppe Coen (1811-1856), landscapes and architectural; Leopold Pollak (1806-80), genre and portraits.

Rumania:

Barbu Iscovescu (1816-54); Julius Feld (b. 1871), portraits and genre.

Russia and Poland:

Isaac Lvovich Asknazi (b. 1856), religious subjects, genre, and portraits; Jacob Semenovich Goldblatt (b. 1860), historical; Moisei Leibovich Maimon (b. 1860), genre and portraits; Peter Isaacovich Geller (b. 1862), Jewish historical subjects; Samuel Hirszenberg (b. 1866), genre and scenic; Maurice Grün (b. 1870), genre and portraits; Jacques Kaplan (b. 1872), portraits and genre; Alexander Lesser (1814-84), historical; Leonid Osipovich Pasternak (b. 1862), genre and portraits.

Bibliography:
  • Jüdische Künstler, Berlin, 1903;
  • S. J. Solomon, in J. Q. R. 1903.
J. F. C.
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