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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Frank Cramer, B.Sc.

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Contributions:
HARTVIGSON, ANTON – Danish pianist; born at Aarhus, Jutland, Oct. 16, 1845; brother of Frits Hartvigson. He studied under Neupert and Tausig. After appearing in several concerts in Copenhagen he went to London, where for ten years he was professor...
HARTVIGSON, FRITS – Danish pianist; born at Grenaae, Jutland, May 31, 1841. His first instructors in piano were his mother and Anton Rée. In 1859 he went to Berlin, where he studied under Hans von Bülow. Hartvigson's first important appearance in...
HENRIQUES, ROBERT MARTIN – Danish musician, composer, and author; born in Copenhagen Dec. 14, 1858. He received instruction in violoncello from Bendix and Neruda, and in 1877 went to Dresden to study under Grützmacher and Kretschmer. He has appeared at...
HENSCHEL, AUGUST WILHELM EDUARD THEODOR – German physician and botanist; born in Breslau Dec. 20, 1790; died there July 24, 1856; educated at the medical and surgical college at Breslau, the Ober-Collegium, Berlin, and the universities of Heidelberg and Breslau (M.D....
HIRSCHSPRUNG, HEINRICH – Danish manufacturer and art-collector; born in Copenhagen Feb. 7, 1836; son of Abraham Marcus Hirschsprung (1793-1871), who in 1826 founded one of the largest tobacco-factories in Denmark, of which Heinrich Hirschsprung is still...
JACOB, JULIUS – German landscape- and portrait-painter; born in Berlin April 25, 1811; died there Oct. 20, 1882. He studied under Wach at the Düsseldorf Kunstakademie, and under Delaroche in Paris. Having completed his studies at the latter...
JACOBI, SAMUEL – Danish physician; born in Yaroslav, Galicia, 1764; died in Copenhagen 1811. He studied the Talmud for some years, but later devoted himself to medical studies, which he pursued at the universities of Breslau, Leipsic, and Halle,...
JACOBSON – Danish family of engravers, of whom the first important member was Aaron Jacobson (1717-75), who, in the middle of the eighteenth century, left Hamburg and settled in Copenhagen, where (1745) he became engraver of the royal...
JACOBSON, LUDWIG LEWIN – Danish surgeon; born in Copenhagen Jan. 10, 1783; died there Aug. 29, 1843. He received his early education at the German Lyceum in Stockholm, Sweden, but on deciding to pursue the study of medicine removed to Copenhagen, where...
JUDITH, MADAME – French actress; born in Paris Jan. 30, 1827. She began her theatrical career at the Théâtre des Folies-Dramatiques in 1842, where her melodious voice and graceful bearing won her the heart of the public, to whom she was known as...
KIRALFY, IMRE – Musical composer; born in Budapest, Hungary, Jan. 1, 1845. He received his musical education at Budapest, Vienna, and Paris. Kiralfy, who commenced composition of music at the age of twelve, is the author, originator, and...
LABATT, LEONARD – Swedish dramatic tenor; born in Stockholm Dec. 4, 1838; died at Christiania, Norway, March 7, 1897. He studied under Günther and Masset, and made his début in 1866 at the Stora Teatern, Stockholm, in Mozart's "Die Zauberflöte."...
LEROY-BEAULIEU, HENRI JEAN BAPTISTE ANATOLE – French historian; born at Lisieux in 1842. The first works that appeared from his pen were "Une Troupe des Comédiens" and "Essai sur la Restauration de nos Monuments Historiques Devant I'Art et Devant le Budget" (1866). In 1867...
LEVIN, ISRAEL SOLOMON – Danish grammarian and linguist; born in Randers 1810; died in Copenhagen 1883. He graduated from Randers high school, and afterward was employed as editor of a critical journal and as a translator of novels.Levin was the author...
LEVIN, POUL THEODOR – Danish author; born in Copenhagen June 17, 1869; educated at the University of Copenhagen (Ph.D. 1898). Levin, who has become widely known as a literary critic, has written two dramatic works—"Antoinette" and "Sejr" (Copenhagen,...
LEVINSOHN, ANNA HENRIETTE – Danish operatic singer; born in Copenhagen Jan. 8, 1839; died there March 22, 1899. She made her début at the Kongelige Theater in Copenhagen on Dec. 20, 1860, when she, as Nannette in "Den Lille Rödhætte," completely won the...
LEVISON, ESAIAS – Danish educationist and author; born in Copenhagen April 22, 1803; died there March 23, 1891; educated at the University of Copenhagen (B.A. 1823). In 1824 Levison was appointed tutor at the Jewish school in Copenhagen, in which...
LEVISON, FERDINAND EMANUEL – Danish physician; born in Copenhagen Nov. 9, 1843; educated at the University of Copenhagen (M.D. 1868). He was successively assistant physician at Frederik's Hospital, the Lying-in Hospital, and the Almindeligt (Communal)...
LĖVY, MICHEL – French publisher; born at Pfalzburg Dec. 20, 1821; died in Paris May 6, 1875. In 1836 he settled in the latter city, where, together with his brothers Calman and Nathan, he engaged in the publishing business. His firm soon...
LEVY, MORITZ MARCUS (CARL EDVARD MARIUS) – Danish physician; born in Copenhagen Sept. 8, 1808; died there Dec. 30, 1865. He graduated as M. D. from the University of Copenhagen in 1833, having in 1830 won the university gold medal for a medical essay.From 1833 till 1836...
LEVYSOHN, SALOMON FREDERIK – Danish musician and critic; born in Copenhagen Oct. 14, 1858. He studied at the University of Copenhagen and at the Polytechniske Institut until 1878, when he decided to devote himself to the study of music. From 1884 to 1896 he...
LEWIS, SAMUEL A. – American politician and philanthropist; born in New York city 1831. He early engaged in business, and was so successful that he retired with a competency in 1862. In 1868 he was elected a member of the board of education of the...
LEWY, BERGNART (BERNHARD) CARL – Danish chemist; born in Copenhagen July 5, 1817; died there Jan. 1, 1863. He obtained the degree of graduate of pharmacy in 1835, and then studied chemistry for three years at the polytechnic school. In 1839 he studied in Berlin...
MARIX, ADOLPH – American naval commander; born Apr. 24, 1848, in Saxony. He went to America while still a boy, and in 1864 entered the United States Naval Academy at Annapolis, Md., graduating in 1868. In 1869 he was promoted to the rank of...
MELCHIOR, MORITZ GERSON – Danish merchant; born in Copenhagen June 22, 1816; died there Sept 19, 1884. At the age of twenty-four he entered the firm of Moses & Son G. Melchior, established by his grandfather. His father and one of his brothers, with whom...