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V01p566001.jpg = modest, meek; rendered in Italian: degli Mansi, Piatelli, Pietosi, Umani):
The name of a Jewish family that settled in Italy, and which was originally resident at Rome. According to a family tradition, it was one of the four prominent Jewish families deported by Titus to Rome upon the destruction of the Temple of Jerusalem.
Traces of this family, which is still a flourishing one, may be found as far back as the middle of the tenth century; and between the eleventh and the fourteenth centuries some of its members were particularly prominent. One branch of the Anaws was the family of Bethel or De Synagoga (
The following tables give two of the principal branches of the Anaws, and enumerate those among them who attained any importance. For fuller details see Vogelstein and Rieger, "Gesch d. Juden in Rom," i. 456. See also Bozecci and Bethelides in this Encyclopedia.
- 1. Abraham ben Joab Anaw: Member of the Rabbinical Board in Rome, 1007.
- 2. Jehiel Anaw: Son of No. 1; rabbi and principal of the Talmudic High School in Rome; died before 1070.
- 3. Daniel Anaw: Eldest son of the preceding; died before 1101. He was teacher at the Rabbinical High School, was in friendly intercourse with Christian scholars, and appears to have written a commentary upon the Order Zeraim of the Mishnah. Together with his brothers, he issued rabbinical decisions.
- 4. Daniel Anaw: Probably grandson of the preceding. According to Benjamin of Tudela, he was warden of the Jewish congregation in Rome together with Jehiel and Joab (No. 11) in the year 1166.
- 5. Daniel Anaw: Probably grandson of the last; Talmudist in Rome about 1250. His teacher was Benjamin b. Moses; and Benjamin b. Abraham was his pupil.
- 6. Jehiel Anaw: Son of No. 5; scribe in Rome, 1265.
- 7. Daniel Anaw: Son of No. 6; synagogal poet in Montalcino about 1300.
- 8. Nathan Anaw: Second son of Jehiel (No. 2); author of the 'Aruk.
- 9. Abraham Anaw: Third son of Jehiel (No. 2); teacher at the Talmudic High School in Rome; issued rabbinical decisions conjointly with his brothers, and with his brother Nathan established a synagogue in Rome, 1101.
- 10. Solomon Anaw: Son of No. 9; president of the Talmudic High School and of the Rabbinical Board in Rome about 1130. Some of his rabbinical decisions have been preserved.
- 11. Joab Anaw: Son of No. 10. In 1166, together with Jehiel and Daniel (No. 4), he was, according to Benjamin of Tudela, warden of the Jewish congregation. He was the friend and a patron of Abraham ibn Ezra.
- 12. Benjamin Anaw: Son of No. 11; died young, before 1145; a pupil of Ibn Ezra in Rome. To him the latter dedicated his commentary upon the Song of Solomon and Job.
- 13. Solomon b. Shabbethai Anaw: Great-grandson of Joab (No. 11), learned Talmudist in the second quarter of the thirteenth century, and the first Roman Jew of the thirteenth century who actively engaged in literary work. He was the teacher of Judah b. Benjamin (No. 25) and of Benjamin b. Abraham (No. 30). He wrote a commentary uponAḥai's "Sheiltot," which was completed by Judah b. Benjamin and to which Benjamin b. Abraham wrote glosses.
- 14. Shabbethai Anaw: Son of No. 13; rabbi in Rome toward the end of the thirteenth century. He delivered philosophical lectures, and was the intimate friend of Zerahiah b. Isaac b. Shealtiel of Barcelona, who translated philosophical works for him in Rome. In the dispute between Zerahiah and Hillel b. Samuel, he took the part of the former.
- 15. Joab b. Benjamin Anaw: Grandson of Solomon (No. 13), grammarian and Bible-exegete in Rome. He was active in 1280, and is mentioned, in 1304, as a teacher. Among his pupils were Jekuthiel b. Jehiel Anaw (No. 24) and Benjamin b. Judah Bozecco.
- 16. Mattathiah b. Shabbethai Anaw: Brother of Solomon (No. 13), Talmudist in Rome about 1240.
- 17. Shabbethai Anaw: Son of No. 16, father-in-law of Joab (No. 15).
- 18. Menahem b. Joab b. Solomon b. Shabbethai Anaw: Great-grandson of the preceding, a scribe in 1378 (Zunz, "Gesammelte Schriften," iii. 169).
- 19. Abraham b. Joab Anaw: Scribe and synagogal poet in Rome in the second half of the thirteenth century, a descendant of Jehiel (No. 2).
- 20. Paola Anaw: Daughter of No. 19, scribe in Rome, 1288-92. She married first Solomon b. Moses de Rossi, and after his death, about 1285, Jehiel b. Solomon. There were three sons by her first marriage, Immanuel, Jekuthiel, and Solomon; the last, born posthumously, died before 1330.
- 21. Benjamin and (22) Abraham Anaw: Sons of Jehiel; physicians and Talmudists in Rome at the beginning of the thirteenth century. Abraham was also rabbi there. See also Anaw, Abraham b. Jehiel.
- 23. Jehiel b. Jekuthiel Anaw: Grandson of Benjamin (No. 21), synagogal poet and scribe in Rome, 1260-89; author of a book on morals, entitled "Ma'alot ha-Middot" (Excellencies of Virtue).
- 24. Jekuthiel Anaw: Son of No. 23, scribe in Rome, 1280, and pupil of Joab b. Benjamin (No. 15).
- 25. Judah Anaw: Son of Benjamin (No. 21).
- 26. Zedekiah b. Benjamin Anaw: Brother of No. 25, learned Talmudist in Rome. He died at a very old age, some time after 1280. He was a pupil of Meir b. Moses in Rome and of Abigdor Cohen in Vienna. He was probably a partizan of Abraham Abulafia.
- 27. Menahem Ẓemaḥ b. Abraham Jacob Anaw: Grandson of Benjamin (No. 21), scribe in Rome and Frascati, 1322-26.
- 28. Menahem Anaw (the Pious): Son of Benjamin (No. 21), about 1290; physician in Rome. He occupied himself also with Talmudic studies and gave instruction.
- 29. Solomon b. Jehiel Anaw: Grandson of Abraham (No. 22), copyist in Rome, 1292-97.
- 30. Benjamin Anaw: See Anaw, Benjamin.
- 31. Moses Rofe Anaw: Son of No. 30, physician and Talmudist in Rome, 1292.
- 32. Moses Anaw: Son of Abraham (No. 22), Talmudist and synagogal poet in Rome in the middle of the thirteenth century.
- 33. Zedekiah b. Abraham Anaw: See Anaw, Zedekiah b. Abraham.
- 34. Solomon Anaw: Son of No. 33, scribe in Rome, 1288-1316.
- 35. Jehiel Anaw: Brother of No. 34, 1294.
- 36. Grandson of Zedekiah Anaw (No. 33): Name unknown; wrote a halakic work.
Other members of the family are:
- 37. Judah Anaw: About 1145.
- 38. Jehiel b. Solomon Anaw: Second husband of Paola (No. 20), in Rome, 1288.
- 39. Jehiel b. Joab Anaw: Pupil of Shabbethai b. Solomon (No. 14), in Rome.
- 40. Jehiel b. Nathan Anaw: 1289 (see Steinschneider, "Katalog der Hebräischen Handschriften in Berlin," i. 11).
- 41. Abraham b. Solomon Anaw: In Sulmona, 1419.
- 42. Joshua b. Solomon Anaw: Fifteenth century (Steinschneider, "Jüd. Literatur," p. 443).
- 43. Abraham Anaw: Secretary of the Jewish community in Rome, 1499.
- 44. Moses b. Samuel Anaw of Rome: Scribe in Reggio, 1503.
- 45. Abraham b. Jacob Anaw: Rabbi in Rome, 1536.
- 46. Judah b. Shabbethai Anaw: Rabbi and secretary of the congregation in Rome, 1530-54. He took part in the rabbinical conference at Ferrara in 1554; died before 1574.
- 47. Isaac Anaw: Son of No. 46, rabbi and secretary of the congregation in Rome, 1530-82.
- 48. Baruch b. Mordecai Anaw: (
V01p567001.jpg) "Fattore del Ghetto," or "Sindaco," Steward of the Ghetto, in Rome, 1568.
- 49. Baruch Anaw: Member of the governing board of the Jewish congregation in Rome, 1558 (possibly identical with the preceding).
- 50. Ḥayyun Anaw: Member of the governing body at Rome, 1558.
- 51. Rafael b. Isaac Anaw: In Ferrara and Cremona, sixteenth century (see Mortara, "Indice").
- 52. Isaiah Anaw: Talmudist in Günzburg, 1608 (
- 53. Joab (Dattilo) b. Baruch Anaw: Member of the Rabbinical Board in Rome, about 1700.H. V.
- 54. Phinehas Ḥai b. Menahem Anaw: Italian author of the eighteenth century; head of the Talmudic college at Ferrara. He wrote "Gibe'at Pinḥas" (Hill of Phinehas), containing responsa on various halakic subjects. The work, consisting of eight volumes, is still extant in manuscript in the Almanzi collection.Bibliography: Mortara, Indice Alfabetico, s.v.; Luzzatto, Hebr. Bibl. iv. 54. I. Br.
- 55. Judah b. Mordecai Anaw: 1714 (Mortara, "Indice," p. 49).
- 56. Abraham b. Jacob Anaw: Rabbi and primary teacher in Rome; wrote a drama and a wedding ode; died 1782.
- 57. Jacob Anaw: Eighteenth and nineteenth centuries (Fürst, "Bibl. Jud." iii. 100).
- 58. Servadio b. Elijah Umano Anaw: Born 1815; died June 12, 1844. He was a teacher and wrote rabbinical works and decisions in Italian ("Mosé" [periodical], v. 305).
- 59. Isaac b. Elijah Anaw: Brother of No. 58, in Ferrara, 1882 ("Mosé," ib.).
- 60. Salvatore Anaw: Was employed in the finance department of the Roman republic in 1849.
- 61. Flaminio Anaw: Member of the commission to prepare a new constitution for the congregation in Rome in 1886 ("Vessillo Israelitico," 1886, p. 61).
- 62. Abraham Anaw: Owner of Bodleian manuscript No. 1069 (Neubauer, "Cat. Bodl. Hebr. MSS.").
- 63. Jekuthiel b. Judah Anaw: Scribe (Luzzatto,
- 64. Judah b. Benjamin ha-Rofe (Anaw?) and (65) Samuel, his son: In Viterbo in May, 1362 (Munich MS. No. 268). H. V.