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The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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Isaac Broydé,

(Office Editor), Doctor of the University of Paris, France; formerly Librarian of the Alliance Israélite Universelle, Paris, France; New York City.

Contributions:
ABD-UL-ḤAMID II. – Thirty-fourth Ottoman sultan; born Sept. 22, 1842; succeeded his brother, Murad V., Aug. 31, 1876. The Turkish Jews rightly regard his reign as the inauguration and guaranty of their prosperous condition in the Turkish empire....
ABRAHAM BEN JOSEPH SOLOMON HAḤAZAN – Karaite rabbi at Koslov, now Eupatoria, Crimea, in the first half of the nineteenth century. His father, Joseph Solomon, whom he succeeded in the rabbinate, instructed him in the literature and science of the Karaites. He is the...
ABRAHAM JOSHUA HOESHL – Rabbi at Kolbushowa, and later at Miedzyboz, Poland; lived inthe beginning of the nineteenth century. He wrote two commentaries on the Pentateuch: "Torat Emet" (The Teaching of the Truth) and "Oheb Yisrael" (The Lover of...
ABUN BEN SHARADA – A Spanish poet; flourished at the beginning of the eleventh century, first at Lucena, afterward at Seville. None of his poetical works has survived; and his name is known only from quotations made by poets like Solomon ibn...
ACHAWA – 1. German annual published at Leipsic (C. L. Fritzsche) under the title, "Achawa, Jahrbuch für 1865=5625," from 1865 to 1868 by the Society for the Help of Needy Jewish Teachers, their Widows and Orphans. The annual treated...
ALBY (ALBI) – Ancient cathedral town, capital of the department of Tarn, France, forty-two miles northeast of Toulouse. It gave its name to the famous Christian sect, the Albigenses, whose struggles against the Church of Rome were so fatal to...
ALDUS MANUTIUS – Italian publisher; born at Bassiano in 1449 or 1450; died at Venice, Feb. 6, 1515. Aldus studied the Latin classics at Rome under the direction of Caspar of Verona and Domizio Galderino, and afterward attended the lectures on...
ALEXANDER THE GREAT – The celebrated conqueror of the East, 356-323 B.C. By introducing Hellenic culture into Syria and Egypt, he had probably more influence on the development of Judaism than any one individual not a Jew by race. Yet, curiously...
ALEXANDER OF APHRODISIAS – Greek commentator on Aristotle; flourished at the end of the second century and at the beginning of the third, in the reign of the emperors Septimus Severus and Caracalla. He was surnamed "the Exegete" and "Aphrodisiensis"; the...
ALFASI, ISAAC BEN JOSEPH – Descendant of a Spanish family; flourished in Adrianople in the sixteenth century. He translated Ghazzali's work, "Mishkat al-Anwar," into Hebrew, under the title, "Maskit ha-Orot u Pardes ha-Niẓẓanim" (The Chamber of Light and...
ALTENKUNSTADT, JACOB (KOPPEL) BEN ẒEBI – Rabbi at Verbo, Hungary; lived in the first half of the nineteenth century. He wrote "Ḥiddushe Yabeẓ" (novellæ) on the Talmudic treatise Ḥullin, Presburg, 1837, which, as the author states in his introduction, is an extract from...
ALYPIUS OF ANTIOCH – Eminent geographer of the fourth century; intimate friend of the Roman emperor, Julian the Apostate. Alypius, of noble and generous character, was governor of Britain 355-360, whence he was recalled by the emperor to superintend...
AMADO, JOSHUA JUDAH – Talmudist, of a Spanish family settled at Salonica in the early part of the nineteenth century. He wrote "Ohole Yehudah" (The Tents of Judah), published at Salonica in 1820. It contains (1) homilies on the Pentateuch, and (2)...
AMASIA, AMASIEH – City in Asia Minor, on the Yeshil-Irmak (the ancient Iris). The population in 1900 was 23,000. The city is now of little importance; but, to judge from the number of Spanish fugitives that sought shelter there, it must have been...
AMULO (AMOLON), THEODBOLDUS – Archbishop of Lyons (841) in the reign of Charles the Bald; died 852. From his master and predecessor, Agobard, he learned to hate the Jews, and with the assistance of the Bishop of Rheims and Archbishop of Sens, who nourished...
ANAGRAM – The letters of a word so transposed as to make a different word or phrase. The use of anagrams by the Jews dates back to the remotest antiquity. Several occur in the Bible; for example: ("And Noah found grace," Gen. vi. 8),...
ANAW – The name of a Jewish family that settled in Italy, and which was originally resident at Rome. According to a family tradition, it was one of the four prominent Jewish families deported by Titus to Rome upon the destruction of...
ANONYMOUS WORKS – Hebrew anonymous literature is coeval with the literature of the nation. The Bible mentions two anonymous historical works: "Milḥamot Adonai" (Num. xxi. 14) and "Sefer ha-Yashar" (Josh. x. 13). The Hebrew writer of antiquity...
AQUINAS, THOMAS – Most eminent of the Christian theological philosophers of the Middle Ages; born 1227 at Aquino, kingdom of Naples; died 1274. Like his teacher Albertus Magnus, Thomas made philosophy his favorite study, and sought to harmonize...
ARABIC LANGUAGE AMONG JEWS, USE OF – The precise period of the first settlement of Jews in Arabia is unknown, and it is therefore impossible to say when the Arabic language was first employed by them. Historical data concerning the Jews of Arabia do not reach...
ARABIC PHILOSOPHY—ITS INFLUENCE ON JUDAISM – Arabic philosophy dates from the appearance of dissenting sects in Islam. A century had hardly elapsed after Mohammed revealed the Koran, when numerous germs of religious schism began to arise. Independent minds sought to...
ARAMA, MEÏR BEN ISAAC – Philosopher and Biblical commentator; born at Saragossa at the end of the fifteenth century; died about 1556 in Salonica. His father was exiled from Spain in 1492 and died in Naples. Meïr Arama, who had gone thither with his...
ARCHIMEDES – The greatest mathematician of antiquity; born in Syracuse about 287 B.C. His influence on Jewish literature was not extensive. Only two of his works have come down to us in a Hebrew translation. Kalonymusben Kalonymus (after...
ARDOTIAL (ANDRUTIL) SHEM-ṬOB BEN ISAAC – Spanish poet; flourished at Soria in the beginning of the fourteenth century. The name has been wrongly transcribed as Androtil, Adrutil, Ardothiel. Steinschneider connects the name with Ardot; the ending "ial" having either a...
ARITHMETIC – The art of reckoning. This must have been familiar to the ancient Hebrews. The sacred books mention large amounts, showing that the people were acquainted with the art of computation. Expressions are found even for fractions...