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HOTTINGER, JOHANN HEINRICH – Swiss Christian Hebraist; born at Zurich March 10, 1620; drowned in the Limmat, in Switzerland, June 5, 1667. Having studied Oriental languages and theology at Geneva, Groningen, and Leyden, Hottinger was in 1642 appointed...
HOUBIGANT, CHARLES FRANÇOIS – French Christian Hebraist; born in Paris in 1686; died there Oct. 31, 1783. In 1704 Houbigant entered the order of the Congregation of the Oratory. The pupil of Maclef, he was imbued with his teacher's anti-Masoretic prejudices....
HOURWICH, ISAAC AARONOVICH – American statistician; born at Wilna, Russia, April 27, 1860; educated at the gymnasium of Minsk and the University of St. Petersburg. As a student, he became interested in the nihilistic propaganda. Arrested in 1879 on the...
HOURWITZ, ZALKIND – Polish scholar; born at Lublin, Poland, about 1740; died at Paris in 1812. Endowed with great ability and thirsting for learning, he left his native country when a youth, lived for a time in Berlin (where he associated with...
HOUSE – In the warm countries of the East the house is not so important a factor as it is in Western civilization, the climate permitting the Palestinian to live almost entirely in the open air. Artisans do not ply their trades in the...
HOUSEBREAKING – See Burglary.
HOUSEMAN, JULIUS – American financier; born at Zeckendorf, Bavaria, Dec. 8, 1832; died at Grand Rapids, Mich., Feb. 8, 1892. He attended school up to the age of fifteen, and after two years' commercial study he sailed for America. After working as...
HOUSTON – Capital of Harris county, Texas; situated on the banks of Buffalo Bayou. It had a population in 1897 of 45,000, of whom about 1,200 were Jews. It has the oldest Jewish congregation in the state, the Congregation Beth Israel...
HRADISCH, UNGARISCH – See Ungarisch Hradisch.
HÜBSCH, ADOLPH – American preacher; born at Liptó-Szent-Miklós, Hungary, Sept. 18, 1830; died in New York city Oct. 10, 1884. Hübsch was descended from the Jaffe family. At the age of ten he was sent to Budapest, where he attended the...
HUESCA – City in Aragon. Toward the end of the thirteenth century it contained a specially privileged Jewish community of 160; it also had a rabbinical college of its own (Solomon ben Adret, Responsa, Nos. 300, 1179). The congregation,...
HUETE – Spanish city, in the bishopric of Cuenca. A considerable Jewish community lived there in the thirteenth century. The city is especially known because of the "Padron de Huete," the apportioning, in 1290, of the taxes which the...
HUGH OF LINCOLN – Alleged victim of ritual murder by the Jews of Lincoln in 1255. He appears to have been the illegitimate son of a woman named "Beatrice," and was born in 1247. He disappeared July 31, 1255, and his body was discovered on Aug. 29...
HUKKOK – Place on the borders of Naphtali, near Aznot Tabor (Josh. xix. 34). As the frontier line coincided with the western limit of Asher (l.c.), it is probable that this place is identical with the Hukok that fell to the lot of Asher...
HULDAH – Biblical Data: Prophetess; wife of Shallum, the keeper of the wardrobe in the time of King Josiah. She dwelt in the second quarter of Jerusalem. It seems that Huldah enjoyed great consideration as a prophetess, for when Hilkiah...
HULL – Seaport of Yorkshire, England. It has a population (1901) of over 241,753, including about 2,500 Jews. The earliest trace of Jews there occurs toward the end of the eighteenth century, when they acquired for a synagogue a...
ḤULLIN – Treatise of the Babylonian Talmud, including Mishnah, Tosefta, and Gemara; it is not found in the Jerusalem Talmud. While it is included in the Seder Ḳodashim, it treats mainly of non-consecrated things and of things used as the...
HÜLSNER – See Polna Affair.
ḤULTHA – One of the seven seas which, according to the Talmudists, surround Palestine (B. B. 74b; Yer. Ket. xii. 3; Kil. ix. 5; Midr. Teh. to Ps. xxiv.). In the enumeration of the seven seas in the Yalḳuṭ to Ps. xxiv., the "Sea of Acre"...
HUMAN SACRIFICE – See Sacrifice.
HUMANISTS – Scholars who revived the culture of antiquity and the study of classical literature. The Renaissance, which heightened enthusiasm for the classics, began in Italy in the fifteenth century. From Italy humanism advanced to France,...
HUMILITY – The quality of being humble.—Biblical Data: Judaism, in its conception of humility as in its conception of many other things, stands between the two extremes of self-deification and self-effacement. Jeremiah, in urging the...
HUNA – His Liberality. Babylonian amora of the second generation and head of the Academy of Sura; born about 216 (212 according to Grätz); died in 296-297 (608 of the Seleucidan era; Sherira Gaon, in Neubauer, "M. J. C." i. 30) or in...
HUNA, ABBA HA-KOHEN – See Huna bar Abbin.
HUNA BAR ABBIN HA-KOHEN – Palestinian amora of the first half of the fourth century; pupil of R. Jeremiah, in whose name he reports some halakic and haggadic sayings (Yer. Dem. 21d; Pes. 36d; and frequently). That the name "Neḥunya," from which are...