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JEREMIAH B. ABBA – Babylonian amora of the third century; disciple and fellow of Rab (Ber. 27b). In Yerushalmi his patronymic is often omitted (comp. 'Er. 21a with Yer. 'Er. ii. 20a; see also ib. 19d and Abina). Jeremiah devoted himself to the...
JEREMIAH OF DIFTA – Babylonian amora of the fourth century; contemporary of Papi (B. B. 52a; 'Ab. Zarah 40a). Rabbina, who eventually assisted in the compilation of the Babylonian Gemara, was his pupil. Once, while they were studying, a certain man...
JEREMIAH BEN ELEAZAR – 1. Palestinian scholar of the second century; contemporary of Simeon b. Gamaliel, the father of Judah I. He is known through one haggadah, transmitted by his pupil Bar Ḳappara, and giving various reasons for the death of the two...
JEREMIAH BEN JACOB BEN ISRAEL NAPHTALI – German Talmudist and philanthropist; died in Halberstadt before 1664. Like his father, Jacob (Jockel Halberstadt), Jeremiah was parnas of the congregation. His wealth, which heused for the benefit of the community, his learning,...
JEREZ DE LA FRONTERA – See Xeres de la Frontera.
JERICHO – Biblical Data: A city in the Jordan valley, opposite Nebo (Deut. xxxii. 49), to the west of Gilgal (Josh. iv. 19). Owing to its importance, the part of the Jordan near Jericho was called "the Jordan of Jericho" (Num. xxii. 1,...
JERIDIE-TERJUME – Title of a Jewish periodical, written in Judæo-Spanish, and printed in rabbinic characters, which was published at Constantinople in 1876 under the editorship of Nissim Niego.G. M. Fr.
JEROBOAM – Name of two kings of Israel. The meaning generally attached to the name is "[he] strives with [oppresses] the people," or "the people strive," the root of the first element being taken to be (comp. Judges vi. 32). This equation,...
JEROHAM BEN MESHULLAM – French Talmudist; flourished in the first half of the fourteenth century. According to Gross, he lived in Languedoc, but on the banishment of the Jews from that province (1306) he settled at Toledo, where he devoted himself to...
JEROME (EUSEBIUS HIERONYMUS SOPHRONIUS) – Church father; next to Origen, who wrote in Greek, the most learned student of the Bible among the Latin ecclesiastical writers, and, previous to modern times, the only Christian scholar able to study the Hebrew Bible in the...
JERSEY CITY – See New Jersey.
JERUBBAAL – A name given to Gideon by his father, Joash (Judges vi. 32), because the men of the city of Ophrah demanded that he turn over to them Gideon, who had destroyed the altar of Baal. When Joash named him "Jerubbaal," he said, "Let...
JERUSALEM – Ancient: Cross-Sectional View of Jerusalem (West to East) as Seen from the South.(After Heyck, "Die Kreuzzüge.")Capital at first of all Israel, later of the kingdom of Judah; chief city of Palestine; situated in 31° 46′ 45″ N....
JERUSALEM – See Periodicals; Year-Books.
JESCHURUN – Periodical published in Frankfort-on-the-Main and subsequently in Hanover. Founded in Oct., 1854, it was issued as a monthly by Samson Raphael Hirsch up to 1870. From 1882 till 1886 his son Isaac Hirsch published it as a weekly....
JESCHURUN (Zeitschrift für die Wissenschaft des Judenthums) – Periodical edited and published by Joseph Isaac Kobak. Among its contributors were S. L. Rapoport, S. D. Luzzatto, A. H. Weiss, Halberstam, Dukes, Steinschneider, Reifmann, and other well-known scholars. The first two volumes...
JESHARELAH – See Asarelah.
JESHIBAH – See Yeshibah.
JESHUA BEN JUDAH – Karaite exegete and philosopher; flourished, probably at Jerusalem, in the second half of the eleventh century; pupil of Joseph ben Abraham ha-Ro'eh. Jeshua was considered one of the highest authorities among the Karaites, by...
JESHURUN – Poetical name for Israel, occurring four times in the Bible (Deut. xxxii. 15, xxxiii. 5, 26; Isa. xliv. 2; in the last-cited place the A. V. has "Jesurun"). All the commentators agree in applying this term to Israel. The...
JESI, SAMUEL – Italian engraver; born at Milan 1789; died at Florence Jan. 17, 1853. He was a pupil of G. Longhi at the Academy of Milan. His first work (1821) was "The Abandonment of Hagar," engraved after a painting by Guercino in the...
JESSE – Father of David, son of Obed, and grandson of Boaz and Ruth. He is called "the Bethlehemite" (I Sam. xvi. 1, 18; xvii. 58) and "the Ephrathite of Bethlehem" (ib. xvii. 12). He had eight sons (ib. xvi. 10, 11; xvii. 12), although...
JESSEL, SIR GEORGE – English master of the rolls; born in London 1824; died there March 21, 1883; youngest son of Zadok Aaron Jessel. Educatedat University College, London, and London University, he became M. A. and gold medalist in mathematics in...
JESURUN – A family whose members were descendants of the Spanish exiles, and are found mainly in Amsterdam and Hamburg. The earliest known member appears to have been Reuel Jesurun.Daniel Jesurun: Preacher and president of an educational...
JESUS OF NAZARETH – In History: Founder of Christianity; born at Nazareth about 2 B.C. (according to Luke iii. 23); executed at Jerusalem 14th of Nisan, 3789 (March or April, 29 C.E.). His life, though indirectly of so critical a character, had...