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MARX, ADOLF BERNHARD:

German musical writer; born at Halle May 15, 1799; died at Berlin May 17, 1866. He had studied music for some time with D. S. Türk when his father, who had destined him for the law, sent him to the University of Halle, where he matriculated. Shortly afterward, however, he rejected the offer of a legal appointment at Naumburg in order to devote himself entirely to music, and proceeded to Berlin, where he became a pupil of Zelter, while gaining a livelihood by teaching. In conjunction with the well-known publisher Schlesinger, he founded (1824) the "Berliner Allgemeine Musikalische Zeitung," which he conducted until 1830. In 1827 the University of Marburg conferred on him the title of doctor of philosophy; and in this capacity he lectured on the pedagogies of music at the University of Berlin, which institution in 1830 appointed him musical director of its student choir.

With Kullak and Stern, Marx founded in 1850 the Berliner Musikschule, now the Stern Musik Conservatorium, one of the most prominent musical institutes of Berlin. Here he taught until 1856, when he resigned in order to devote himself entirely to literary and university work and to the teaching of composition. His long and intimate friendship with Mendelssohn was ultimately severed because of the latter's strictures upon Marx's compositions, which, indeed, have not withstood the test of time. His musical writings, however, are far more valuable, and include: "Ueber Malerei in der Tonkunst" (1828); "Die Lehre von der Musikalischen Komposition" (Berlin, 1837-1847, 4 vols. ; several times reprinted);"Allgemeine Musiklehre" (1839; 9th ed., 1875; translated into English); "Die Musik des 19ten Jahrhunderts und Ihre Pflege" (1855); "Ludwig van Beethoven's Leben und Schaffen" (1858; 3d ed., 1875); "Gluck und die Oper" (1863, 2 vols.); "Erinnerungen aus Meinem Leben" (1865, 2 vols.); and several other writings of an analytical nature.

Bibliography:
  • Mendel, Musikalisches Konversations-Lexikon;
  • Riemann, Musik-Lexikon.
S. J. So.
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