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MEDALS:

Soon after the revival of the art of engraving medals, about the middle of the fifteenth century, a few Jewish specimens were struck in Italy, although the number was very small on account of the general oppression of the Jews at that period. The number gradually increased during the eighteenth century, keeping pace with the improvement of Jewish conditions; and in the second half of the nineteenth century, when the Jews had been emancipated in nearly all civilized countries, medals were struck so frequently that one or more appeared nearly every year. The following list contains the principal Jewish medals known. Those issued in honor of comparatively unimportant private persons and numerous miscellaneous and cabalistic medals are not included. The symbol ° designates medals which are described in works mentioned in the bibliography and * those in the illustrations.

  • 1503. Benjamin b. Elijah Beer: obverse, bust; reverse, inscription; 167 mm.
  • 1552.* ° Elias and Rica Delatas: bust on both sides; 49 mm.
  • 1556.* ° Gracia Nasi: engraved on one side only; bust; 66 mm.
  • 1659. Baptism of the Jew Michael of Prague: oval; obverse, baptism (in the Jordan); reverse, inscription; 82 × 69 mm.
  • 1670. Three hundredth anniversary of the alleged desecration of the host at Brussels: obverse, the Holy Sacrament; reverse, inscription; 39 mm.
  • 1670. Idem: obverse, the Holy Sacrament; reverse, escutcheon; 32 mm.
  • 1686. Participation of the Jews in the defense of Buda: obverse, smelting-furnace; reverse, inscription; 2 sizes, 41 and 47 mm. respectively.
  • 1711.* ° Conflagration in the ghetto of Frankfort: obverse, the fire; reverse, inscription; inscription about the edge; 44 mm.
  • 1735. ° Eliezer ben Samuel Shmelka: obverse, bust; reverse, inscription.
  • 1738. Süss Oppenheimer's execution: obverse, bust; reverse, gallows; 38 mm.: "Schraub" medal; 42 mm.
  • 1745.* ° Edict of exile at Prague: obverse, audience; reverse, Solomon's Temple; 64 mm.
  • c. 1775.* ° Moses Mendelssohn: obverse, bust; reverse, skull and butterfly; 43 mm.
  • c. 1775. Idem: one-sided cast medallion; bust, skull, etc.; 99 mm.
  • 1781. Edict of Toleration by Emperor Joseph II.: obverse, bust; reverse, obelisk and genius; 45 mm.
  • 1782.* Idem: obverse, bust; reverse, clericals of the three confessions; 43 mm.
  • 1790.* Medal presented by the Hessian Jews to Landgrave Ludwig X.: obverse, man sacrificing; reverse, inscription; 37 mm.
  • 1790.° Medal presented by the Hessian Jews to the Landgravine Caroline Henrietta: obverse, palm-tree; reverse, inscription; three variants, 34, 34, and 29 mm. respectively.
  • 1791.* Wilhelmschule at Breslau: obverse, grafted trunk; reverse, inscription; two sizes, 18 and 11 mm. respectively.
  • 1793.* ° Daniel Itzig's seventieth birthday: obverse, bust; reverse, allegorical group; 52 mm.
  • 1803.° Lippmann Meyer's seventy-third birthday: obverse, bust; reverse, inscription; 38 mm.
  • c. 1803.* ° Marcus Herz: obverse, bust; reverse, Pallas; 41 mm.
  • 1805.* ° Emancipation of the Russian Jews: obverse, bust; reverse, man sacrificing; 46 mm.
  • 1806.* ° Napoleon and the Sanhedrin: obverse, bust; reverse, Napoleon and a Jew; 41 mm.
  • 1808.* ° Emancipation of the Westphalian Jews: obverse, thank-offering; reverse, two geniuses; 42 mm.
  • 1810. Building of the synagogue at Bordeaux: inscriptions on both sides; 35 mm.
  • c. 1816. Gershom Mendes Seixas: obverse, bust and inscription.
  • 1820. Four hundred and fiftieth anniversary of the alleged desecration of the host at Brussels: obverse, the Holy Sacrament; reverse, inscription; 32 mm.
  • 1824. Laying of the corner-stone of the synagogue at Munich: obverse, bust; reverse, engraved inscription; 26 mm.
  • 1826. Dedication of the same synagogue: obverse, the synagogue; reverse, inscription; 39 mm.
  • 1827. Court commission of the Dutch Jews; obverse, altar and symbols; reverse, plain; 59 mm.
  • 1828. Giuditta Pasta: one-sided medallion; head; 113 mm.
  • 1829. Idem: obverse, head; reverse, inscription; two variants, 43 and 35 mm.
  • 1830. Idem: obverse, homage; reverse, inscription; 47 mm.
  • 1830. Ludwig Börne: one-sided medallion; head; 159 mm.
  • 1836.* Gabriel Riesser: obverse, allegorical group; reverse, inscription; 59 mm.
  • 1836. Death of N. M. von Rothschild: obverse, head; reverse, inscription; 62 mm.
  • 1836. Court commission of the Dutch Jews: observe, symbolic picture; reverse, plain; 47 mm.
  • 1837. Elias Henschel and the Jews of Breslau: obverse, head; reverse, inscription; 39 mm.
  • 1840. Monteflore and Crémieux at Damascus: obverse, audience; reverse, inscription; 43 mm.
  • 1841. The king in the synagogue at Mastricht: obverse, the synagogue; reverse, inscription; 41 mm.
  • 1841. Jewish Home for the Aged at The Hague: obverse, the building; reverse, inscription; 40 mm.
  • 1841.* Jewish hospital at Hamburg (Solomon Heine): obverse, head; reverse, the building; two sizes, 45 and 12 mm. respectively.
  • 1841.* Jewish loan institute at Hamburg: obverse, beehive; reverse, inscription; 45 mm.
  • 1841.* Monteflore and the Jews of Hamburg: obverse, escutcheon; reverse, inscription; 42 mm.
  • 1842. R. Solomon Herschell: obverse, bust; reverse, Torah scroll and inscription; 62 mm.
  • 1843. Hebrew school at Birmingham; obverse, the building; reverse, inscription; 45 mm.
  • 1843. First Jewish confirmation at Warsaw: obverse, seven-branched candlestick and tables of the Law; reverse, inscription; 42 mm.
  • 1844. S. M. von Rothschild's seventieth birthday: obverse, head; reverse, escutcheon; 59 mm.
  • 1846.* Isaac Bernays' jubilee: inscriptions on both sides; 51 mm.
  • 1846. Rachel (Felix): obverse, head; reverse, inscription; 53 mm.
  • 1847. Medal dedicated to Giacomo Meyerbeer by the Concordia Society: obverse, bust; reverse, inscription; 46 mm.
  • 1848. Destruction of Rothschild's castle, Surenne: inscriptions on both sides; 69 mm.
  • 1848. Medal given by the Italian Jews to B. d'Azeglio: obverse, bust; reverse, inscription; 51 mm.
  • 1848. Daniel Manin: obverse, bust; reverse, homage of the people; 57 mm.
  • 1850. Society for the Emancipation of the Oriental Christians and Jews: obverse, group; reverse, inscription; 62 mm.
  • 1850. General de Meza: obverse, bust; reverse, trophy; 45 mm.
  • 1850. August Neander: obverse, bust; reverse, inscription; 45 mm.
  • 1851. Dr. Gruby: obverse, snake of Æsculapius; reverse, inscription; 50 mm.
  • 1852. Orthodox synagogue at Frankfort: obverse, the synagogue; reverse, inscription; 39 mm.
  • 1853. Engraver Samuel Jesi: obverse, head; reverse, inscription; 68 mm.
  • 1854. Giacomo Meyerbeer: obverse, head; reverse, lyre; 41 mm.
  • 1855. Medal presented by the Italian Jews to Albert Cohn: obverse, temple vessels; reverse, inscription; 55 mm.
  • 1855. Similar medal presented to Ludwig Philippson.
  • 1856. Laemmelschule at Jerusalem: obverse, palm-tree; reverse, inscription; 33 mm.
  • 1858. Death of Rachel (Felix): obverse, head; reverse, inscription; 53 mm.; token, 23 mm.
  • 1858 (?). M. G. Saphir: one-sided medal; bust; 47 mm.
  • 1859. R. Henri Loeb's jubilee: obverse, bust; reverse, inscription; 59 mm.
  • 1860. Right conferred upon the Austrian Jews to possess real estate: obverse, allegorical picture; reverse, inscription; 73 mm.
  • (c. 1860). Société J. R. Pereire, prize medal: obverse, Pereire teaching; reverse, inscription. 54 mm.
  • 1861 (?). Historical painter B. Ullmann: one-sided medallion; bust; 123 mm.
  • 1861. Synagogue at Cologne: obverse, the synagogue; reverse, interior view; 59 mm.
Commemorative Medals.1. Elias and Rica Delatas, 1552. 2. Gracia Nasi, 1556. 3. Conflagration at Frankfort-on-the-Main, 1711. 4. Edict of Exile from Prague, 1745. 5. Edict of Toleration Issued by Emperor Joseph II., 1781. 6. Presented by Hessian Jews to the Landgrave Ludwig X., 1790.(In the collection of Albert Wolf, Dresden.)Commemorative Medals.7. Emancipation of Westphalian Jews, 1808. 8. Emancipation of Russian Jews by Alexander I., 1805. 9. Napoleon and Sanhedrin, 1806. 10. Marcus Herz, 1805. 11. Wilhelmschule at Breslau, 1791. 12. Daniel Itzig's Seventieth Birthday, 1793. 13. Moses Mendelssohn's "Phaedon," 1775. (In the collection of Albert Wolf, Dresden.)
  • 1861. Numismatist Oberndoerfer's seventieth birthday: obverse, bust; reverse, inscription; 40 mm.
  • 1863. Preacher Mannheimer's seventieth birthday: obverse, bust; reverse, inscription; 50 mm.
  • 1864. Moses and Judith Monteflore: obverse, busts of both; reverse, inscriptions; 68 mm.
  • 1865. Jewish orphan asylum for boys at Amsterdam: obverse, allegorical group; reverse, building; 68 mm.
  • 1867. Dr. M. H. Romberg: obverse, head; reverse, inscription; 62 mm.
  • 1867. Joseph Wertheimer retiring from office: obverse, bust; reverse, inscription; 45 mm.
  • 1867. Cantor Pereles' jubilee of office; inscriptions on both sides; 32 mm.
  • 1868. Deputy Dr. Max Hirsch: octagon; obverse, bust; reverse, two hands; 25 mm.
  • 1868. The astronomer H. Goldschmidt: obverse, three heads; reverse, allegorical figure; 69 mm.
  • 1868.* Oppenheimer foundation at Hamburg; obverse, bust; reverse, building; 44 mm.
  • 1870. Crémieux at Tours: obverse, head (on another an escutcheon); reverse, inscription; 46 mm.
  • 1870. Franchetti's heroic death: two variants; (1) obverse, escutcheon; reverse, inscription; 33 mm.; (2) obverse, head; reverse, inscription; 24 mm.
  • 1875. Synagogue at Pribram (Przibram): obverse, the synagogue; reverse, shield of David; 33 mm.
  • 1875. Jubilee of the Portuguese synagogue at Amsterdam: obverse, escutcheon (pelican); reverse, inscription; 36 mm.
  • 1876. Two hundredth anniversary of the Ḥebra Ḳaddisha, Gailingen: inscriptions on both sides; 34 mm.
  • 1876. Death of the painter S. L. Verveer: obverse, bust; reverse, easel; 60 mm.
  • 1877. Portuguese synagogue at Paris: obverse, tables of the Law; reverse, inscription; 28 mm.
  • 1877. Salomon H. von Mosenthal's death: obverse, head; reverse, genius; 59 mm.
  • 1879. Minister of Justice Godefroi: obverse, bust; reverse, inscription; 69 mm.
  • 1879. Joseph Pizza's death: obverse, bust; reverse, masonic emblems; 42 mm.
  • 1880. Medal presented by the officials of the Jewish community of Vienna to Ludwig August Frankl: obverse, head; reverse, escutcheon; 39 mm.
  • 1880. R. E. A. Astruc's jubilee of office: obverse, bust; reverse, inscription; 55 mm.
  • 1881. N. Monteflore: prize medal for military surgeons; obverse, field-hospital; reverse, escutcheon; 60 mm.
  • 1881. Adolphe Crémieux's death: obverse, bust; reverse, inscription; 68 mm.
  • 1881. Anti-Semitic movement at Berlin: four variants: (1) obverse, escutcheon; reverse, inscription; (2) obverse, caricature; reverse, sticks and hat; (3 and 4) inscriptions on both sides; 24 mm.
  • 1881. Jubilee of the Edict of Toleration: obverse, bust; reverse, inscription; 30 mm.
  • 1881. Adolf Sonnenthal's jubilee: obverse, bust; reverse, theater; 60 mm.; also in form of a thaler.
  • 1881. Jubilee of the theater director Ch. Maurice: obverse, bust; reverse, inscription.
  • 1882. Preacher Jellinek's jubilee of office: inscriptions on both sides; 44 mm.
  • 1882. New synagogue at Frankfort: obverse, the synagogue; reverse, inscription; 36 mm.
  • 1883. Prix Osiris: obverse, fencing - weapons; reverse, wreath; 34 mm.
  • 1884. Architect Max Fleischer: obverse, bust; reverse, synagogue; 104 mm.
  • 1884. Monteflore's one hundredth birthday; struck three times (London, Corfu, and Manchester): obverse, bust; reverse, inscription; 42, 41, and ? mm.
  • 1884. Ignaz Kuranda: one-sided medallion; bust; 145 mm.
  • 1886. Medal presented by the Jewish Aid Society at Luxemburg to Engenie Bloch: obverse, allegorical group; reverse, inscription; 50 mm.
  • 1887. New synagogue at Munich: obverse, the synagogue; reverse, inscription; 40 mm.
  • 1888. Founding of a Frankfort lodge: obverse, shield of David; reverse, tables of the Law; 25 mm.
  • 1888. R. Abraham Alexander Wolf's sixtieth anniversary of office: obverse, bust; reverse, inscription; 38 mm.
  • 1888. Numismatist Donebauer's death: obverse, bust; reverse, inscription; 58 mm.
  • 1889. Gerson von Bleichröder: obverse, bust; reverse, escutcheon; 25 mm.
  • 1889. Court choirmaster H. Levi: one-sided medallion; bust; 115 mm.
  • 1889. Editors of the "Neue Freie Presse" (Bacher, Benedikt, and Werthner): obverse, three busts; reverse, newspaper; 85 mm.
  • 1890. Liquidation of the Deutsch-Israelitische Gemeinde of Hamburg: obverse, Torah cabinet; reverse, allegorical group; 42 mm.
  • 1890. Ludwig Barnay's jubilee: obverse, bust; reverse, inscription; 45 mm.
  • 1890. M. R. von Mises' ninetieth birthday: obverse, bust; reverse, escutcheon; 45 mm.
  • 1891. M. R. von Mises' death: obverse, bust; reverse, escutcheon; 40 mm.
  • 1891. M. von Wilmersdoerffer's jubilee: obverse, bust; reverse, escutcheon; 49 mm.
  • 1891. Prof. E. H. Kisch's fiftieth birthday: obverse, bust; reverse, Hygeia; 55 mm.
  • 1892. Numismatist Adolph Meyers-Gedanensis: oval; obverse, bust; reverse, buildings; 71 × 57 mm.
  • 1892. Prof. Th. Gomperz's sixtieth birthday: obverse, bust; reverse, allegorical group; 46 mm.
  • 1893. Jubilee of the Nächstenliebe Society, Vienna: obverse, hands; reverse, inscription; 37 mm.
  • 1893. State councilor T. M. C. Asser: obverse, bust; reverse, inscription; 65 mm.
  • 1893. Preacher Adolf Jellinek's death: obverse, bust; reverse, inscription; 55 mm.
  • 1894. Karl Marx: one-sided medallion; bust; 189 mm.
  • 1894. Dr. Adolf Fischhof's death: obverse, bust; reverse, allegorical group; 55 mm.
  • 1895. Jubilee of the factory of Ludwig Löwe: obverse, bust; reverse, allegorical figure; 56 mm.
  • 1896. R. Isaac Elhanan Spektor: obverse, bust; reverse, chapel; 29 mm.
  • 1896. Synagogue at Galatz: obverse, the synagogue; reverse, masonic emblems; 40 mm.
  • 1896. Prof. Moritz Benedikt's jubilee: square plaque; bust; 60 × 44 mm.
  • 1896. Charlotte Furtado-Heine: horticultural prize medal, founded by a will.
  • 1897. Michael Fischhof, founder of "Austria": obverse, bust; reverse, view of city; 50 mm.
  • 1897. Prof. Joseph Gruber's seventieth birthday; plaque; bust; 60 × 45 mm.
  • 1897. Zionist leader Architect O. Marmorek: plaque; bust; 118 mm.
  • 1898. Second Zionist Congress: obverse, allegorical group; reverse, inscription; 63 mm.
  • 1899. Israelitische Religionsgesellschaft to Wilhelm Carl and Mathilde von Rothschild: obverse, interior view of synagogue; reverse, inscription; 40 mm.
  • 1899. Reunion of the Frankfort Israelitische Realschule: obverse, view of city; reverse, inscription; 39 mm.
  • 1899. Choir prize of the Religionsgesellschaft of Frankfort: obverse, interior view of synagogue; reverse, musical instruments; 39 mm.
  • 1899. Prof. James Joseph Sylvester, prize medal for mathematics: obverse, bust; reverse, inscription: 56 mm.
  • 1900. Stepney Jewish School: obverse, allegorical figure; reverse, inscription. 1900. Dr. K. Lippe's seventieth birthday: obverse, bust; reverse, flaming shield of David; 30 mm.
  • 1900. Dr. Ludwig von Guttmann's death: obverse, bust: reverse, mine-inspector; 35 × 31 mm.
  • 1900. Composer Carl Goldmark's seventieth birthday: obverse, bust; reverse, oak and laurel; 55 mm.
  • 1900. Idem: plaque; bust; 200 × 155 mm.
  • 1900. Fiftieth anniversary of the Stern Conservatorium: obverse, bust; reverse, allegorical figure; 42 mm.
  • 1901. Salo Cohen, director of the Jewish community of Vienna: plaque; bust; 168 × 115 mm.
  • 1901. Enlargement of the synagogue at Frankfort: obverse, old and new synagogues; reverse, inscription; 39 mm.
  • 1902. Composer Ignaz Brüll: plaque; head; 200 × 135 mm.
  • 1902. Virtuoso Alfred Grünfeld: plaque; head; 70 × 50 mm.
  • 1903. Synagogue at Szegedin: obverse and reverse, building; 29 mm.
  • 1903. Musician Siegfried Ochs: obverse, bust; reverse, lyre; 50 mm.
  • 1904. Centenary of the Frankfort Philanthropin: obverse, sower; reverse, beehive; 50 mm.
  • 1904. M. von Wilmersdörffer's death: plaque; bust; 100 mm.
  • 1904. Artist Joseph Israels' eightieth birthday.

For the names of Jews prominent as engravers of medals see Jew. Encyc. v. 175, s.v. Engraving and Engravers.

Bibliography:
  • Mulder, Eene Zeldzame Medaille, Amsterdam, 1859;
  • Schudt, Jüdische Merckwürdigkeiten, ii. 82;
  • Wolf, Eine Unbekannte Jüdische Medaille, in Monatsschrift, 1894;
  • idem, Eine Medaille auf R. Elieser b. Samuel Schmelka, ib. 1898;
  • idem, Das Jüdische Berlin Gegen Ende des Achtzehnten Jahrhunderts in Abbildungen und Medaillen, in Kaufmann Gedenkbuch;
  • idem, Die Hamburger auf oder von Juden Geprägten Medaillen, in Mittheilungen für Jüdische Volkskunde, No. xiii.;
  • idem, Zwei auf Judentaufen Bezügliche Medaillen, in Monatsschrift, 1900;
  • Zunz, Eine Merkwürdige Medaille, in G. S. iii.
A. A. W.
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