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MEMORIAL DATES:

Jewish communities, as a rule, have taken no note of birthdays of any of their members and only in rare cases of the dates of death. One of these cases is the anniversary of the day on which Gedaliah was assassinated (3d Tishri), upon which a fast is observed by Jews in all parts of the world; and on the 18th Iyyar (Lag be-'Omer), Jews living in Palestine visit the tomb of Simon ben Yoḥai, believing this date to be the anniversary of the latter's death. Jews of eastern Europe, furthermore, record the days on which eminent rabbis die, because on every "Jahrzeit" (anniversary of the day of death) they make it a practise to visit the graves of such rabbis, and to ask for their intercession in heaven.

Besides these "Jahrzeiten" there are a number of days which, although they have acquired a religious aspect, have also a historical significance, and are observed either by the Jews as a whole or by local communities. Thus the Ninth of Ab is observed as a fast-day, for on that day the Temple was twice destroyed. On the twenty-fifth of Kislew the Feast of Ḥanukkah begins, because on that day Judas Maccabeus consecrated anew the Temple at Jerusalem (165 B.C.).

The communities of Cologne, Worms, Mayence, and a few other cities in the Rhine district observed fast-days in memory of the martyrs who died during the First Crusade (Zunz, "Ritus," p. 127). Polish Jews fast on the 20th of Siwan on account of the Cossack atrocities of 1648 (see Fasting and Fast-Days). In Crete and Frankfort-on-the-Main as well as in certain communities in Egypt, special feasts or Purims are celebrated in commemoration of miraculous events. The Alexandrian Jews observed amemorial day in honor of the translation of the Bible into Greek (Philo, "Vita Mosis," ii., § 7; see also Festivals).

In imitation of these memorial days sanctified by religion, other dates of Jewish interest have been recorded from time to time, and are used in calendars, almanacs, and at times in the Jewish press. In recent years large collections of notable dates have been made by Jewish scholars and historians, beginning with L. Zunz. The following list gives in calendric order the more important and interesting of these:

January.
  • 1. Jair Ḥayyim Bacharach, German rabbi, died, 1702. Several thousand Jews killed by an earthquake at Safed and Tiberias, 1837.
  • 2. Persecutions of Jews at Lauda and Bischofsheim, 1235.
  • 3. "Neue Stättigkeit" for Frankfort-on-the-Main makes right of domicil perpetual, 1617. Rachel, French actress, died, 1858.
  • 4. Moses Mendelssohn, philosopher and religious reformer, died, 1786. Wilhelm Beer, German astronomer, born, 1797.
  • 5. Joseph Salvador, Jewish historian, born, 1796. Edward Lasker, German statesman, died, 1884.
  • 6. First auto da fé held at Seville, 1481.
  • 7. Disputation at Tortosa, Joseph Albo being one of the participants, 1413. Sir Julian Goldsmid, English member of Parliament, died, 1896.
  • 8. Samuel Cahen, translator of the Bible into French, died, 1862.
  • 9. Liebmann Adler, American rabbi, born, 1812.
  • 10. David Nieto, haham of London, died, 1728. Poll-tax abolished in France, 1784.
  • 11. Abraham Mapu, Russian Hebrew writer, born, 1808. Lelio della Torre, Italian Jewish theologian, born, 1805.
  • 12. Edict of Juan II. of Castile, withdrawing civil jurisdiction from the Jews, confirmed, 1412.
  • 13. Law of Baden forms Jews into special religious community with all privileges, 1809. Alexander I. of Russia issues edict removing Jews from villages to towns and cities in the governments of Moghilef and Vitebsk, 1825.
  • 14. Hebrew books, confiscated under bull of Feb. 28, 1593, burned at Rome, 1601. Great fire in the Frankfort ghetto, 1711.
  • 15. Leopold Dukes, Hungarian Jewish scholar, born, 1810.
  • 16. Johann Jacob Raabe, translator of the Mishnah, born, 1711.
  • 17. Marcus Herz, physician and philosopher, born, 1747.
  • 18. Solomon Sulzer, reformer of synagogal music, died, 1890.
  • 19. Marcus Herz, physician and philosopher, died, 1803. Isaac D'Israeli, English litterateur and father of the Earl of Beaconsfield, died, 1848.
  • 20. Moritz Oppenheim, German painter of Jewish family life, born, 1800.
  • 21. Jews expelled from France, 1306. Nathan Marcus Adler, chief rabbi of the British empire, died, 1890.
  • 22. David Cassel, Jewish historian, died, 1893. English Zionist Federation founded, 1899.
  • 23. Abraham ibn Ezra, Bible exegete and poet, died, 1167.
  • 24. Ferdinand Julius Cohn, German botanist and zoologist, born, 1828. Isaac Artom, Italian statesman and senator, died, 1900.
  • 25. Disputation at Paris on the Talmud, 1240.
  • 26. First edition of the Hebrew Pentateuch printed at Bologna, 1482.
  • 27. Jerome Napoleon grants full civil rights to Jews of Westphalia, 1808.
  • 28. Lippold, master of the Brandenburg mint, executed, 1573. Theodor Benfey, German Sanskritist and philologist, born, 1809.
  • 29. Abraham Furtado, president of the Sanhedrin summoned by Napoleon, died, 1817.
  • 31. Henry III. issues regulations for English Jewry, 1253.
February.
  • 1. Bogumil Dawison, German actor, died, 1872. Mass-meetings held at New York and London expressing sympathy with the persecuted Jews of the Russian empire, 1882. Perez Smolenskin, Russian Hebrew writer, died, 1885.
  • 3. Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy, composer, born, 1809. Charles the Bourbon, King of Naples and of the two Sicilies, invites the Jews back for fifty years, 1740.
  • 4. "Resettlement Day" in England. Oliver Cromwell grants Carvajal and other Jews right of residence, 1657. Joseph Süss Oppenheimer executed; many Jews driven from Württemberg in consequence, 1738.
  • 5. Rashi on the Pentateuch, the earliest dated printed Jewish book, issued at Reggio, 1475. The disappearance of Father Tomaso (Thomas) gives rise to the Damascus Affair, 1840. Nehemiah Brüll, Jewish scholar, died, 1891.
  • 6. Solomon Munk, French Arabic scholar, died, 1867. Elijah Benamozegh, Italian rabbi and cabalist, died, 1900.
  • 8. Shabbethai Cohen (Shach), died, 1663. Berthold Auerbach, German novelist, died, 1882.
  • 9. Opening of the Sanhedrin at Paris, 1807. Isaac Adolphe Crémieux, French statesman, died, 1880.
  • 11. Societät Felix Libertate founded at Amsterdam, 1795.
  • 12. Auto da fé at Toledo at which 740 Jews were reconciled, 1486. Ludwig Börne, German writer, died, 1837. Isaac Baer Levinsohn, the Mendelssohn of Russia, died, 1860.
  • 13. Zacharias Frankel, Jewish scholar and theologian, died, 1875.
  • 14. Two thousand Jews burned at Strasburg, 1349. Jews ordered to leave Vienna, 1670.
  • 15. Carel Asser, Dutch jurist, born, 1780.
  • 16. Emancipation of the Jews of Sweden, 1870. Commission appointed to revise the laws concerning the Jews of Russia, 1883.
  • 17. Heinrich Heine, German poet, died, 1856.
  • 18. "Ḥaṭṭi Humayun" issued, granting full civic rights to Turkish Jews, 1856. Congregation of the Holy Office declares forcible baptism of Jewish children by Christian nurses effective, 1705.
  • 19. Peter Beer, Austrian educator, born, 1758. Henry IV. grants Jews of Speyer protection to life and property, 1090.
  • 21. Johann Christopher Wolf, Christian bibliographer of Jewish books, born, 1683.
  • 22. Johann Reuchlin, champion of the Jews and defender of the Talmud, born, 1455. Isaac Marcus Jost, Jewish historian, born, 1793.
  • 23. Franz Delitzsch, Christian Hebraist, born, 1813. Sir George Jessel, master of the rolls, England, born, 1824.
  • 24. Moritz Oppenheim, German painter of Jewish family life, died, 1882.
  • 25. Bull of Nicholas V. prohibiting Christians from having social intercourse with Jews and Saracens, 1451.
  • 26. Jews expelled from all Papal States except Rome and Ancona, 1659.
  • 27. Benedict Spinoza, philosopher, died, 1677. Paulus Cassel, Jewish scholar and convert to Christianity, born, 1821.
  • 28. Vincent Fettmilch and his chief accomplices executed, Frankfort, 1616. Berthold Auerbach, German novelist, born, 1812. Rachel, French actress, born, 1820.
March.
  • 1. About four thousand Jews burned at Worms, 1349.
  • 4. Gregory IX. issues bill forbidding Christians to dispute on matters of faith with Jews, 1233. "Rights of Man" declared in Holland, 1795. Religious freedom proclaimed in Austria, 1849.
  • 5. The states of Austria demand that no Jews be permitted to dwell there, 1460.
  • 6. Massacre of Jews at Navarre, 1328.
  • 7. Mordecai Jaffe, codifler of rabbinical law, died, 1612. Joseph Almanzi, bibliophile and poet, died, 1860.
  • 9. Julius Fürst, Hebrew philologist and Jewish bibliographer, died, 1873.
  • 10. Ignaz Moscheles, German composer, died, 1870.
  • 11. Bull of Benedict XIII. against the Talmud and any Jewish books attacking Christianity, 1415. Edict giving the Jews of Prussia citizens' rights, 1812.
  • 12. Judah Löb Bensew, Jewish grammarian and lexicographer, died, 1811. Ludwig Augustus Frankl, German writer and poet, died, 1893.
  • 13. Aaron of Neustadt (surnamed Blumlein), uncle and chief instructor of Isserlein, died, 1421.
  • 14. Mob attacks the Jewish quarter at Cordova, slaughtering many Jews and Maranos, 1473. Heyman Steinthal, linguist and philosopher, died, 1899. Ludwig Bamberger, German deputy and political economist, died, 1899.
  • 15. Albert Cohn, Orientalist and philanthropist, died, 1879. Peddling prohibited in Rumania; 20,000 Jews are thus deprived of a livelihood, 1884.
  • 16. Jews of York slay themselves in order to avoid baptism, 1190.
  • 17. Napoleon institutes the system of consistories in France, 1808. Jacques-François-Fromenthal-Elie Halévy, composer, died, 1862. Judah P. Benjamin becomes secretary of war of the Confederacy of America, 1862.
  • 18. Leopold Zunz, Jewish scholar, died, 1886.
  • 19. Jews of Brest-Litovsk granted free trade and occupation and half of the tolls, 1527.
  • 20. Riots in many cities of Germany, 1848.
  • 21. Leo da Modena, Italian rabbi and author, died, 1648. Three Jews executed at Wilna on a false blood accusation, 1691.
  • 22. Charter granted to Jews of England by Richard I., 1190. Jews permitted to return to Lithuania, 1503. Michael Beer, German poet, died, 1833.
  • 23. Talmuds burned in Rome at the Feast of Pentecost, 1322. Naphtali Herz Wesel (Hartwig Wessely), died, 1805. Isaac Artom elected senator in Italy; first Jew to hold such an office, 1877.
  • 24. Joseph Caro, codifier of rabbinical Judaism, died, 1575. Solomon Halberstam, Jewish scholar, died, 1900.
  • 25. Joseph Almanzi, bibliophile and poet, born, 1801.
  • 26. Isaac M. Wise, American Reform rabbi, died, 1900.
  • 27. Wilhelm Beer, German astronomer, died, 1850.
  • 28. Lazarus Bendavid, German philosopher and reformer, died, 1832. James Darmesteter, French Orientalist, born, 1849. Jews expelled from Moscow by order of the governor-general, 1891.
  • 29. Meïr ben Todros ha-Levi Abulafla (RaMaH), nasi and Talmudist, died, 1244. Jews who served in Russian army permitted by edict to settle in Finland, 1858.
  • 30. Moses ben Maimon (Maimonides), philosopher, born, 1135. Solomon Sulzer, reformer of synagogal music, born, 1804.
  • 31. Edict of expulsion of Jews from Spain issued by Ferdinand and Isabella, 1492.
April.
  • 1. Disappearance of Esther Solymosi gives rise to a blood accusation at Tisza-Eszlár, 1882. Baroness Clara de Hirsch, philanthropist, died, 1899.
  • 2. Jews expelled from Genoa, 1550.
  • 3. Charles V. of Germany issues edict against blood accusations, 1544. Hirsch Kalischer, founder of modern Zionism, born, 1795.
  • 4. Isaac da Fonseca Aboab, ḥakam at Amsterdam, died, 1693. Opening of the Anglo-Jewish Historical Exhibition in the Royal Albert Hall, London, 1887.
  • 5. Moses Ephraim Kuh, first German Jewish poet, died, 1790.
  • 6. Aaron Bernstein, German publicist, born, 1812.
  • 7. Emancipation of the Jews of Prussia, 1848.
  • 8. Ferdinand III. grants Bohemian Jews right of residence in all royal towns, 1648. One hundred and twenty-eight Jews killed by soldiers and populace at Bucharest as the result of a blood accusation, 1801.
  • 10. Karl Isidor Beck, Austrian poet, died, 1879.
  • 11. First anathema against Ḥasidim issued at Wilna, 1772. Ferdinand Lassalle, socialist agitator, born, 1825.
  • 12. Jews of Cracow plundered and many murdered by soldiers, 1464.
  • 13. Sabbato Morais, American rabbi, born, 1823. Edict of Nicholas I. founding agricultural colonies in Russia; general Jewish regulations issued in Russia, 1835.
  • 14. Deutsch-Israelitischer Gemeindebund founded, 1869.
  • 15. Dankmar Adler, American architect, died, 1900.
  • 16. Menahem ben Jacob, poet and teacher at Worms, died, 1203.
  • 17. Frederick the Great issues a "General-Privilegium" for the Prussian Jews, 1750. Pope Pius IX. issues edict to remove the walls of the Roman ghetto, 1848.
  • 18. Charge of host desecration at Prague leads to massacre of Jews, 1389. Earl of Beaconsfield, English premier, died, 1881.
  • 19. Massacre of Jews at Cordova by soldiers of Sulaiman ben alḤakim, 1013. Jacob Emden, German rabbi, died, 1776.
  • 20. Levi ben Gershon, philosopher and commentator, died, 1344. Proselyte Nicholas Anthoine burned at Geneva, 1632.
  • 21. Baron Maurice de Hirsch, philanthropist, died, 1896.
  • 22. Isaac Adolphe Crémieux, French statesman, born, 1796. Uriah Phillips Levy, American commodore, born, 1792.
  • 23. Louis XIII. of France issues edict forbidding Christians, under penalty of death, to shelter Jews or converse with them, 1615. Elijah ben Solomon of Wilna, the "Gaon," born, 1720. Poll-tax in territories of Brunswick-Lüneburg abolished, 1803.
  • 24. First recorded auto da fé held at Troyes, 1288.
  • 25. Anti-Semitic league of Germany presents a petition with 255,000 signatures to Bismarck, 1881.
  • 26. Dutch West India Company directs Peter Stuyvesant to allow Jews to dwell and trade in New Netherlands, 1655. Jews expelled from Russia and the Ukraine by Catherine, 1727.
  • 27. Meïr of Rothenburg died, 1293. Anti-Semitic riot at Elizabethgrad begins a series of excesses against the Jews in South Russia, 1881.
  • 29. Antony Samuel Adam-Salomon, French sculptor, died, 1881.
  • 30. Decree ordering Jews to leave Spain publicly announced, 1492.
May.
  • 1. Moses Isserles, Polish rabbi and code annotator, died, 1572. Johann Jacoby, German statesman, born, 1805. Sir Francis Henry Goldsmid, M.P., first English Jewish lawyer, born, 1808.
  • 2. All the Jews of England thrown into prison, 1287. Giacomo Meyerbeer, composer, died, 1864.
  • 3. Jews of Speyer massacred by the Crusaders, 1096.
  • 4. Benjamin II., Rumanian traveler, died, 1864.
  • 6. Ludwig Börne, German, writer, born, 1786. Judah P. Benjamin, statesman and lawyer, died, 1884.
  • 7. Attack on the Alcana (smaller Jewry) of Toledo by the enemies of Samuel ha-Levi; 1,200 injured, 1355.
  • 8. Anti-Jewish riots in different parts of Russia, especially in Kiev, 1881.
  • 10. Great auto da fé at Lisbon, 1682.
  • 11. Bull of Benedict XIII. against Talmud and any Jewish books attacking Christianity, 1415. Abraham Geiger, Jewish scholar and theologian, born, 1810.
  • 12. Massacre of the Jews of Worms by Crusaders, 1096. Synod of Vienna under Cardinal Guido orders Jews to wear pointed hats, 1267.
  • 14. Solomon Munk, French Orientalist, born, 1803.
  • 15. Bogumil Dawison, Polish-German actor, born, 1818. Russian "May Laws" issued, 1882.
  • 16. Emancipation of the Jews of Holland, 1796. Heyman Steinthal, philosopher and linguist, born, 1823.
  • 17. First Jewish school in Hungary opened at Alt-Ofen, 1784. William Steinitz, chess-player, born, 1836.
  • 18. Anti-Jewish riots in Algeria, 1897.
  • 19. Isaac Alfasi, Talmudic author, died, 1103.
  • 20. Samuel Alatri, Italian philanthropist, died, 1889.
  • 21. Thirty Jews burned at Bösing, near Presburg, 1529.
  • 22. Martyrdom of Brussels Jews charged with host desecration, 1370. Israel ben Eliezer Ba'al Shem-Ṭob (BeSHT), founder of the sect Ḥasidim, died, 1760. Mordecai M. Noah, American diplomat and communal worker, died, 1851.
  • 23. All the Jews of Austria seized, 1420.
  • 24. Riot at Frankfort-on-the-Main on account of a Jewish pervert; 180 killed and Jewish quarters destroyed, 1241. Abraham Geiger, Jewish scholar and reformer, born, 1810.
  • 25. Louis Philippe issues regulations for the internal organization of the French Jews, 1844.
  • 26. Martyrdom of Jews at Blois, 1171.
  • 27. Jews of Mayence massacred by Crusaders, 1096. Jacques-François-Fromenthal-Elie Halévy, composer, born, 1799.
  • 29. Lelewel, Polish geographer and friend of Jews, died, 1861.
  • 30. Massacre of Jews at Cologne by Crusaders, 1096. Ignaz Moscheles, German composer, born, 1794.
June.
  • 1. "Privilegium Fredericianum." issued by Duke Frederick II. of Austria, 1244.
  • 2. Tolerance ediçt of Joseph II. of Austria issued, 1782. Grace Aguilar, English novelist and writer on Jewish history, born, 1816.
  • 4. Outbreaks against Jews of Seville, 1391.
  • 5. Jews of Rome forbidden to practise usury, 1570. Sir Julius Benedict, composer and conductor, died, 1885.
  • 6. Henry II. imposes on Jews of Toledo a tax of 20,000 gold "dollas" (= $9,630,000), 1369.
  • 7. Louis Jacoby, German engraver, born, 1828. David Kaufmann, Hebraist and Orientalist, born, 1852.
  • 8. Riots at Posen lasting to July 4, on account of a false murder charge, 1696. Fanny von Arnstein, society leader at Vienna, died, 1818.
  • 9. Jacob Tam, most prominent of French tosafists, died, 1171. Samuel Mohilever, rabbi and Zionist, died, 1898.
  • 10. Six thousand Jews of Nemirov slaughtered by the Cossacks, 1648.
  • 12. Jews of France ordered to wear a yellow badge, 1269.
  • 15. Jews expelled from Genoese territory, 1567.
  • 16. Many Jews murdered in Erfurt, 1221. Joseph Solomon del Medigo born, 1591.
  • 17. Twenty-four wagon-loads of Talmuds and two hundred other manuscripts burned at Paris, 1244. Eighty Maranos imprisoned by Alexander VI. at Rome, 1503.
  • 20. Four thousand Jews slain at Toledo, 1391. Cossacks slay thousands of Jews at Homel, Poland, 1767.
  • 21. Rabbinical synod held at Ferrara, 1554. Jacques Offenbach, composer, born, 1819.
  • 23. Martyrdom of Jews of Weissenburg, 1270.
  • 24. Jews treacherously murdered at Tulchin by Cossacks, 1648. Edgar Mortara forcibly taken from his family, giving rise to the "Mortara Case," 1858.
  • 25. Religious disputation before Louis IX. of France, 1240. Two hundred and fifty Jews murdered in Rothenburg-on-the-Tauber, 1298.
  • 26. Lipmann Heller forced to leave his post as rabbi at Prague, 1629. Adolf Jellinek, Jewish scholar, born, 1821.
  • 27. Jews of Xanten massacred by Crusaders, 1096. Joseph Israels, Dutch painter, born, 1824.
  • 28. Meïr of Rothenburg imprisoned at Rotevil by Bishop Henry of Basel, 1286. Jew badge introduced into Venice, 1366.
  • 29. Blood accusation at Xanten, 1891.
  • 30. Edict forbidding Maranos to leave Portugal, 1557. Jews expelled from Prague, 1745.
July.
  • 1. Elijah ben Samuel burned at Rome, 1298. Bernard Beer, German-Jewish scholar, died, 1861.
  • 2. Anglo-Jewish Association founded, 1871.
  • 3. Mansion House meeting in London protests against the outrages of the Damascus Affair, 1840. Religious freedom proclaimed in Germany, 1868. Theodor Herzl, Zionist leader, died, 1904.
  • 4. Judah ben Asher, Talmudist, died, 1349. Isabella Nuñez Alvarez burned in auto da fé at Madrid, 1632.
  • 5. Pope Innocent IV. issues bull against blood accusation, 1247.
  • 6. Three hundred Jews murdered at Tarrega, Catalonia, 1348.
  • 7. Gregory X. issues bull against blood accusation, 1274. Ludwig Chronegk, German theatrical manager and actor, died, 1891.
  • 8. Seligmann Heller, German poet, born, 1831.
  • 9. Julius Oppert, Orientalist, born, 1825. Lord Rothschild takes his seat as first Jewish peer in the British House of Lords, 1884.
  • 11. Czarina Anne expels the Jews from Little Russia, 1740. E. H. Lindo, Jewish historian, died, 1865.
  • 13. Godfrey of Bouillon takes Jerusalem, and nearly all the Jews there are slaughtered, 1099. Solomon Yiẓḥaḳi (Rashi), commentator, died, 1105. Berlin Congress inserts clause 44 into its treaty, 1878.
  • 14. United Synagogue of London established by Act of Parliament, 1870.
  • 15. Pope lays down principle that Jews were doomed to perpetual servitude because they had crucified Jesus, 1205. Royal decree expelling Jews from Portugal issued, 1508. Act permitting Jews to trade in New Netherlands issued, 1655.
  • 16. Graziadio Isaiah Ascoli, Italian philologist, born, 1829.
  • 17. Anti-Semitic riots at Neustettin, lasting two days, 1881.
  • 18. Nathan Rothschild, founder of the London banking-house, died, 1836.
  • 19. Thirty-eight Jews burned at Berlin, 1510.
  • 20. Religious disputation at Barcelona, Naḥmanides defending Judaism, 1263.
  • 21. Shabbethai ben Joseph Bass, founder of Jewish bibliography, died, 1718.
  • 22. First expulsion of Jews from France, 1306. About 10,000 Jews slain at Polonnoye, near Jitomir, 1648.
  • 23. Shabbethai Ẓebi, pseudo-Messiah, born, 1626.
  • 24. Jean de Bloch, Russo-Polish financier, born, 1836.
  • 25. Jews expelled from Vienna, 1670. Johann Christopher Wolf, bibliographer of Jewish books, died, 1739.
  • 26. Pope Paul IV. establishes the ghetto at Rome, 1556. First sitting of the Assembly of Notables, 1806.
  • 27. Benedict Spinoza excommunicated, 1656.
  • 28. Emancipation in Hungary, 1849. Eduard Lasker secures the passing of the "Austritt-Gesetz," permitting persons in Prussia to sever connection with any religious community, 1876. Sir Moses Montefiore, philanthropist, died, 1885.
  • 29. Max Nordau, writer and Zionist, born, 1849. Joseph Derenbourg, Orientalist, died, 1895.
  • 30. Auto da fé at Toledo, 1488.
  • 31. Little St. Hugh of Lincoln disappeared, 1255. Nachman Krochmal, Galician scholar, died, 1840.
August.
  • 1. Mordecai ben Hillel killed during the massacre of Jews at Nuremberg, 1298. Two Jews elected to the National Assembly of Holland, 1797. Last auto da fé at which a Jew was burned held at Valencia, 1826.
  • 2. Jews expelled from Spain, 1492. First Portuguese synagogue at Amsterdam dedicated, 1675.
  • 3. Patent for Bohemia removes all Jewish disabilities, 1797. Carel Asser, Dutch jurist, died, 1836.
  • 4. Samuel Cahen, translator of the Bible into French, born, 1796. Max Ring, German poet, born, 1817.
  • 5. Great massacre of Jews at Barcelona, 1391. Maria Theresa, for an annual consideration of 3,000,000 gulden, suspends for a period of 10 years the edict expelling Jews from Austria, 1748.
  • 6. Marcus Eliezer Bloch, naturalist, died, 1799.
  • 7. Bolko I. of Silesia grants Jews "Privilegium Fredericianum," 1295.
  • 8. Bull of Pius IV. permits Jews to lay aside the yellow hat on journeys, 1561. Jacob Christian Basnage, Christian historian of the Jews, born, 1653.
  • 9. Jews settle in Pinsk and secure lands for synagogue and cemetery, 1506. Anti-Jewish riots at Frankfort; house of the Rothschilds attacked, 1819.
  • 10. Leopold Zunz, Jewish scholar, born, 1794. Alexander I. of Russia prohibits foreign Jews from settling permanently in Russia, 1824.
  • 11. Jonah Abravanel, Hebrew poet, died, 1667. Restriction on the use of Christian prænomens removed in Bohemia, 1836.
  • 12. Naḥmanides visits Jerusalem, 1267. Jossel von Rosheim obtains from Charles V. an extension of the Alsatian privileges to the whole Holy Roman Empire, 1530. William Steinitz, chess-master, died, 1900.
  • 13. Johannes Buxtorf II., Christian Hebraist, born, 1599.
  • 14. Baruch Auerbach, educator and philanthropist, born, 1793.
  • 15. Simon ben Asher, astronomer, died, 1342.
  • 16. Johannes Buxtorf II., Christian Hebraist, died, 1664.
  • 17. Papal edict forbids Jews to admit Christians into synagogue, 1592.
  • 19. Michael Beer, German poet, born, 1800.
  • 20. Maranos of the Basque Provinces ordered to leave the Jewish streets and to live among Christians, 1493.
  • 21. Joseph Derenbourg, Orientalist, born, 1811.
  • 22. Six thousand Jews slaughtered in Mayence, 1349.
  • 24. Three thousand Jews slaughtered in Erfurt, 1349. Aaron Chorin (Choriner), Hungarian rabbi, died, 1844.
  • 25. Samuel David Luzzatto, Italian Jewish scholar, born, 1800. David Gans, Jewish historian and mathematician, died, 1613.
  • 28. "'Alenu" prayer forbidden in Prussia, 1703. Isaac Samuel Reggio, Jewish theological writer, died, 1855. Opening of the first Zionist Congress at Basel, 1897.
  • 30. Ẓebi Ashkenazi, rabbi in London and Amsterdam, died, 1658.
  • 31. Joseph Pichon of Seville, chief royal tax-gatherer, executed by order of Jewish judges, 1379. Ferdinand Lassalle, socialistic agitator, died, 1864.
September.
  • 1. Jews of Brest ordered to obey court of Rabbi Mendel Frank, 1531. Anti-Jewish riots at Frankfort-on-the-Main, under Fettmilch, 1614.
  • 2. Jews of Holland declared by the National Assembly citizens of the Batavian republic, 1796.
  • 3. Coronation massacre at London, 1189. James Joseph Sylvester, English mathematician, born, 1814. Anti-Jewish riots at Stockholm, 1852.
  • 4. Michael Sachs, German rabbi, born, 1808.
  • 5. Henrietta Herz, leader of Berlin salon, born, 1764.
  • 6. Moses Mendelssohn, philosopher and religious reformer, born, 1729.
  • 7. Hirsch (Heinrich) Graetz, Jewish historian, died, 1891.
  • 8. Israelsky, accused of ritual murder at Konitz, acquitted, 1900.
  • 9. Captain Alfred Dreyfus condemned a second time, 1899.
  • 10. Jewish community founded at Berlin, 1671. Shabbethai Ẓebi, pseudo-Messiah, died, 1676.
  • 11. Jewish Colonization Association founded by Baron de Hirsch, 1891.
  • 12. David Oppenheim, bibliophile, died, 1736.
  • 13. Johannes Buxtorf I., Christian scholar, died, 1629. Shabbethai Ẓebi embraces Mohammedanism, 1666.
  • 14. Albert Cohn, Jewish scholar and philanthropist, born, 1814.
  • 15. Akiba Eger the Elder, rabbi and Talmudic author, died, 1780. Giacomo Meyerbeer, composer, born, 1791.
  • 16. Grace Aguilar, English novelist and writer on Jewish history, died, 1847.
  • 17. Decree ordering Jews to leave France issued, 1394. Pedro Arbues, inquisitor, "the darling of Torquemada," died, 1485.
  • 18. Jonathan Eybeschütz, rabbi and author, died, 1764. Sultan of Morocco grants religious liberty to Jews and Christians, 1880.
  • 19. Mayer Rothschild, founder of the Frankfort banking-house, died, 1812. Capt. Alfred Dreyfus "pardoned," 1899.
  • 20. Gedaliah Yaḥya, writer on history, died, 1487. Ghetto at Rome abolished, 1870.
  • 22. Dedication of the Mayence synagogue, 1104.
  • 24. Moses Sofer, rabbinical author, born, 1762.
  • 27. Emancipation of the Jews of France, 1791.
  • 28. First congregation founded at Stockholm, 1775.
  • 29. Jews of Krems massacred, 1349. Fanny von Arnstein, society leader at Vienna, born, 1757. Samuel David Luzzatto, Italian Jewish scholar, died, 1865.
  • 30. Zacharias Frankel, Jewish scholar and theologian, born, 1801.
October.
  • 1. About 7,000 Jews expelled from the government of Kiev, Russia, 1898.
  • 2. Thousands of Jews killed at Lublin by Cossacks, 1656.
  • 3. Blood-accusation riot at Galatz; ninety Jews injured and four synagogues destroyed, 1868. Moses Schreiber (Sofer), Orthodox leader and rabbi, died, 1839.
  • 4. Emancipation of the Jews of Baden, 1862.
  • 5. Jacques Offenbach, French composer, died, 1880.
  • 6. Abraham Firkovich, Karaite scholar, born, 1787.
  • 7. Eleazar of Brody, rabbi at Amsterdam, died, 1741.
  • 8. Jacob Eduard Polack, physician to the Shah of Persia, died, 1891.
  • 9. Casimir III., the Great, of Poland, grants Jews "Privilegium Fredericianum," 1333. Adolf Franck, French philosopher, born, 1809. Abraham Mapu, Russian Hebrew writer, died, 1867.
  • 10. Elijah ben Solomon of Wilna, the "Gaon," died, 1797.
  • 11. Ninety Jews massacred at Munich, 1285.
  • 12. Akiba Eger, rabbi and Talmudic author, died, 1837.
  • 13. Victor Emanuel emancipates the Jews of Rome, 1870. Leopold Löw, rabbi and critic, died, 1875.
  • 14. Eduard Lasker, German politician, born, 1829.
  • 15. Moritz Hartmann, Austrian poet, born, 1821.
  • 16. Joseph Solomon del Medigo, physician and scientist, died, 1658. Jewish quarter of Kossow, Galicia, attacked; ten Jews killed, 1898.
  • 17. Bull appointing Tomaso Torquemada inquisitor-general of Aragon, Valencia, and Catalonia, 1483. Senatorial decree grants privileges to baptized Jews in Russia, 1776.
  • 18. Lazarus Bendavid, German philosopher and reformer, born, 1762.
  • 19. James Darmesteter, French philologist, died, 1894. Giulio Bartolocci, Italian Christian student of Jewish literature, died, 1687.
  • 20. Emin Pasha (Ed. Schnitzer), African traveler, killed, 1892.
  • 21. Israelitische Theologische Lehranstalt of Vienna founded, 1893.
  • 22. Roman Curia decides that a Jewish child once baptized must be brought up under Christian influences, 1587. Henriette Herz, leader of the Berlin salon, died, 1847.
  • 23. Abraham Geiger, Jewish scholar and religious reformer, died, 1874. Inquisition at Rome refuses permission to Jews to put gravestones or inscriptions over their dead, 1625.
  • 24. Moses Montefiore, philanthropist, born, 1784. Decree of Crémieux naturalizes the Jews of Algeria, 1870.
  • 25. Asher ben Jehiel (Rosh), died, 1327.
  • 26. Anti-Jewish riots at Cracow, 1407.
  • 28. 'Abd al-Majid receives Moses Montefiore in regard to the Damascus Affair, 1840. Moses Naḥmanides, philosopher and commentator, died, 1270. Emanuel Deutsch, English Jewish Talmudic scholar, born, 1829.
  • 29. Jews of Kur-Hessen granted full emancipation (first in Germany), 1833. Conference of Jewish notables of western Europe at Brussels, to discuss Rumanian question, 1872.
  • 31. Jews expelled from Portugal, 1497. Heinrich Graetz, Jewish historian, born, 1817.
November.
  • 1. Jews of England imprisoned by King John, 1210. Jews banished from England, 1290. Isidore Loeb, French Jewish scholar, born, 1839.
  • 2. William II. of Germany receives a Zionist deputation headed by Dr. Theodor Herzl, at Jerusalem, 1898.
  • 3. Third and final expulsion of the Jews from France, 1394. Ludwig Chronegk, German actor, born, 1837.
  • 4. Auto da fé held at Seville, 1481. Felix Mendelssohn-Bartholdy, composer, died, 1847.
  • 5. David Sassoon, Indian financier, died, 1864.
  • 6. Firman issued by Sultan 'Abd al-Majid against blood accusation, 1840. Abraham Azulai, cabalistic author, died, 1643.
  • 8. Rabbinical synod of Mayence regulates the payment of Jewish taxes, 1223. Peter Beer, educational writer, died, 1838.
  • 10. David Einhorn, American Reform rabbi, born, 1809.
  • 11. Sabbato Morais, American Orthodox rabbi, died, 1897.
  • 12. Law regulating the adoption of family names by Jews in Austria, 1787.
  • 13. Talmud burned at Kamenetz-Podolsk by the Frankists, 1757. Benjamin Peixotto, American diplomat, born, 1834.
  • 15. Act passed by General Assembly of New York permitting Jews to omit "upon the faith of a Christian" from the oath of abjuration, 1727.
  • 16. Riot at Paris; many Jews plundered, several killed, and the rest forced to flee, 1380. Jews executed for imaginary crime at La Guardia, 1491.
  • 17. Simḥah Pinsker, Hebrew author, died, 1864.
  • 18. First meeting of English Jewish Board of Deputies, 1760. "Lehrerseminar" founded at Berlin, 1840.
  • 19. Emma Lazarus, American poetess, died, 1887.
  • 20. Manasseh ben Israel, died, 1657. Anton Rubinstein, Russian composer and pianist, died, 1894. Isaac M. Jost, Jewish historian, died, 1860.
  • 22. Solomon Maimon, German philosopher, died, 1800.
  • 23. Leopold Kompert, ghetto poet and novelist, died, 1886.
  • 24. Benedict Spinoza, philosopher, born, 1632.
  • 27. Abraham ben David of Posquières (RaBaD III.), French Talmudic commentator, died, 1198. Sir Julius Benedict, English composer, born, 1804.
  • 29. Jews of Augsburg massacred, 1349.
  • 30. Bull of Honorius IV. to archbishops of York and Canterbury, against the Talmud, 1286. Anton Rubinstein, Russian composer and pianist, born, 1830.
December.
  • 1. Manuel Fernando de Villa Real, Portuguese Jewish statesman, executed by the Inquisition at Lisbon, 1652.
  • 2. Ukase of Elizabeth expelling Jews from Great Russia, 1742.
  • 3. Eduard Bendemann, German painter, born, 1811.
  • 4. Opening of the Whitehall conference of English notables on the question of the readmission of Jews into England, 1586.
  • 6. David Friedländer, religious reformer and scholar, born, 1750. Anselm Mayer von Rothschild, financier, died, 1855.
  • 9. Jews expelled from Breslau, 1738. Nathan Ghazzati, warm adherent of Shabbethai Ẓebi, excommunicated, 1666. Baron Maurice de Hirsch, philanthropist, born, 1831.
  • 10. Guildhall meeting protests against the persecution of Russian Jews by the "May Laws," 1890. Auto da fé held at Toledo; nine hundred Jews "reconciled," 1486.
  • 11. Napoleon issues decree dividing the whole French empire into Jewish consistories, 1808.
  • 12. Isaac Leeser, American Orthodox rabbi, born, 1806.
  • 13. Moses ben Maimon (Maimonides), philosopher, died, 1204. Emperor Charles IV. makes an agreement with Rudolph IV. of Austria and John of Bohemia not to receive Jews expelled from Austria, and vice versa, 1360. Heinrich Heine, German poet, born, 1797.
  • 14. Mattithiah Straschun, Talmudic scholar, died, 1885.
  • 15. Ludwig Dessoir, German actor, born, 1810.
  • 17. Three hundred Jews of Bychow, near Moghilef, slaughtered, 1659. Ḳalman Schulman, Russian Hebrew writer, died, 1898.
  • 18. Jews expelled from Bohemia, 1744.
  • 19. Poll-tax abolished in Austria, 1781.
  • 20. Mefiẓe Haskalah founded in Russia, 1863.
  • 21. Benjamin Disraeli, afterward Earl of Beaconsfield, English premier, born, 1804. Adolf Sonnenthal, German actor, born, 1834. Emancipation of Jews of Austria, 1867.
  • 22. Jacob Christian Basnage, Christian historian of the Jews, died, 1725.
  • 23. Paulus (Selig) Cassel, Jewish scholar and convert to Christianity, died, 1892.
  • 24. King Emanuel orders all Jews to leave Portugal, 1496. Anti-Semitic riots at Warsaw, lasting three days, 1881.
  • 25. Johannes Buxtorf I., Christian Jewish scholar, born, 1564. David Friedländer, religious reformer and scholar, died, 1834. Jean de Bloch, Russo-Polish financier, died, 1901.
  • 27. Judaizing followers of R. Zechariah of Kiev burned at Moscow, 1503. Eduard Bendemann, German painter, died, 1889.
  • 28. Ludwig Philippson, Jewish publicist, born, 1811. Full civil rights and privileges granted to the Jews of Frankfort, 1811.
  • 29. Ludwig Philippson, Jewish publicist, died, 1889. Jewish Emancipation Act passed in Hungary, 1867. Adolf Jellinek, Jewish scholar, died, 1893.
  • 30. Jews of Granada, among them Joseph ibn Nagdila, massacred, 1061. Ludwig Dessoir, German actor, died, 1874.
  • 31. Isaac Artom, Italian senator, born, 1829. Sampson Raphael Hirsch, Jewish theologian, died, 1888.
Bibliography:
  • Zunz, Die Monatstage des Kalenderjahres, Berlin, 1872;
  • M. Kayserling, Sterbetage aus Alter und Neuer Zeit, Prague, 1891;
  • Gedenkblätter: Hervorragende Jüdische Persönlichkeiten des 19. Jahrhunderts, Leipsic. 1892;
  • G. Deutsch, in Deborah, 1901 and 1902;
  • idem, Memorable Dates of Jewish History, New York, 1904.
J. I. G. D.
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