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RECANATI:

(Redirected from MENAHEM OF RECANATI.)

Town in Italy, on the Musone, and in the province of Macerata; formerly included in the Pontifical States. Jews are known to have lived in Recanati as early as the thirteenth century, when R. Menahem Recanati flourished in that city. The usefulness of Jewish money-lenders was well recognized in the Marches, almost every town having its money-lender, who ranked almost as a public official. In Recanati there were several, who maintained business relations with those of Urbino. In 1433 one Sabbatuccio di Alleuzzo, a Jew of Recanati, obtained permission from the Duke of Urbino to establish a money-lending business in that city. He went there, and on June 30 of the same year entered into business relations with others, which he maintained until Dec. 9, 1436.

Notwithstanding the protection accorded by the authorities to Jewish money-lenders, the popular hatred against them continued unabated. When Pope Nicholas V., at the instance of Capistrano, a bitter enemy of the Jews, forbade them to lend money at interest (1447), and commanded the restoration of all money that had been received by them as interest, a general rising of the mob took place in Rome, rapidly followed by similar risings throughout Italy. The community of Recanati took steps to avert a similar calamity, and, being unable to bear unassisted all the necessary expenses, endeavored to form a union with other Italian communities for this purpose, particularly with that at Ancona. With this object a letter was written to the latter community, urging it to appoint a day on which delegates from the principal communities might meet and discuss measures of protection. The community of Ancona, however, unwilling to take the lead, advised the community of Recanati to secure the influence of the bishop of its city through the Jews of Rome.

This terminates all information relative to this matter, the outcome of which is unknown. But it is certain that the circumstances of the Jews were no longer flourishing. One of the measures directed against them was the establishment of a "monte di pietà" at Recanati in 1468. On the Day of Atonement in 1558, Filippo, a converted Jew, made a forcible entrance into the synagogue of Recanati and placed a cross upon the Ark; and when the indignant Jews drove him forth he made such a disturbance that the wrathful populace surrounded thesynagogue. Two Jews were arrested by the authorities and publicly flogged. The sixteenth century witnessed the end of the Recanati community. Pope Pius V. banished the Jews from the Papal States, excepting those of Rome and Ancona (Feb. 26, 1569), and his decree, although abrogated for a short time by Sixtus V. (Oct. 25, 1586), was renewed by Clement VIII. (1593). R. Rafael Finzi da Recanati, R. Jacob ben Rafael Finzi da Recanati, and R. Pethahiah Jare, all of the sixteenth century, were rabbis at Recanati. Isaac ben Ḥayyim ben Abraham ha-Kohen lived in Recanati in 1517.

Bibliography:
  • Joseph ha-Kohen, 'Emeḳ ha-Baka, ed. Wiener, p. 97;
  • Luzzatto, I Banchieri Ebrei in Urbino nell' età Ducale, passim;
  • David Kaufmann, in R. E. J. xxiii. 251 et seq.;
  • Vogelstein and Rieger, Gesch. der Juden in Rom, ii. 14, 92;
  • Mortara, Indice, passim.
S. U. C.
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