The unedited full-text of the 1906 Jewish Encyclopedia
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A Dutch physician and professor of criminal anthropology at the University of Amsterdam; also served officially as surgeon to the city police and fire departments; born in Amsterdam, April 1, 1858. He is one of the leaders, in company with Professors Winkler and Jelgersma, in the Dutch school of anthropology which follows methods quite distinct from the French and Italian scientists. He contributed the following articles to the "Psychologische en Neuralgische Bladen":"Over Uranisme" in 1897, "Over Elmira Reformatory" and "Beschouwingen over de Vrouwenkwestie" in 1898, and "Over Ontoerekenbaarheid" in 1899. In 1898 he published a volume of collected essays upon criminal anthropology.

He is also known as a writer of fiction, belonging to the modern realistic school which has flourished in Holland since 1880. Besides a number of smaller contributions to "De Nieuwe Gids," the first monthly organ of this school, he has published "Uit den Dood," 1890; "Zuster Bertha," 1891; "Martha," 1895; and a volume of short stories, 1895.

J. Vr.
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