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ALEXANDER II., POPE (1061-73):

Family name Anselmo Baggio; born at Milan; died April 20, 1073. He became pope in 1061, succeeding Nicholas II., and ruled until 1073. He was elected upon the proposal of Hildebrand, who later became his successor, and throughout his pontificate was guided by Hildebrand's policy and spirit. His election was contested by the imperial house, which caused an anti-pope, Honorius II., to be chosen. The latter, however, was later deposed by a council at Mantua. In spite of his multifarious duties, Alexander devoted considerable thought to the Jews. In all emergencies he was ready to extend to them his protection. On one occasion he commended the action of the Viscount Berengar of Narbonne, who vigorously thwarted an incipient anti-Jewish outbreak in 1063, and simultaneously he addressed an epistle to Bishop Wilfred of Narbonne bidding him to offer protection to the Jews in the future, if occasion should demand. Two years later he reprimanded Prince Landulph of Benevento for having forced certain Jews into baptism, referring both to the un-Christlike natureof forced conversions and to the edict prohibiting them which had been issued by Gregory the Great.

Bibliography.
  • Vogelstein and Rieger, Gesch. d. Juden in Rom, i. 216.
H. G. E.
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