Austrian physician; born Dec. 8, 1868, at Vienna, at whose university he studied medicine (M.D. 1893). After three years of hospital service he became assistant to Professor Benedikt, and has since practised as a specialist in nervous diseases. His "Gesch. der Experimentallen Gehirn-und Rückenmarksphysiologie vor Flourens" (Stuttgart, 1897) procured him the appointment of privat-docent in the history of medicine at the University of Vienna. He has published, besides many smaller articles, the following works: "Die Anfänge der Experimental-Pathologie" (Berlin, 1898); "Das Problem der Wahlanziehung" (Vienna, 1900); "Die Vorgeschichte der Antitoxischen Therapie" (Stuttgart, 1901). He contributed to Professor Pagel's "Handbuch der Gesch. der Medizin" (3 vols., Jena, 1902). In 1902 and 1903 he edited the "Medizinische Blätter."