Chief city of Pennsylvania, and the third, in point of population, in the United States. It is supposed that there were Jews in the neighborhood of Philadelphia at the time of the landing of William Penn, in 1682, since there were numerous Jewish traders in southeastern Pennsylvania long before Penn took possession (see Pennsylvania). The first Jew recorded as having taken up his abode in Philadelphia was Jonas Aaron, who is mentioned as a resident of the city in 1703 ("American Historical Register," April, 1895). Isaac Miranda, the first Jew in the English colonies to hold a judicial position, owned property in the town at an early date; he arrived in Philadelphia about 1710 and at once engaged in trade with the Indians. That there were several Jewish families in the city in 1734 is proved by the fact that the German traveler Von Beck enumerates them among the religious sects of the town. One of the earlier inhabitants was Nathan Levy (1704-53), who applied in 1738 for a plot of ground to be used as a place of burial for his family. He obtained this grant Sept. 25, 1740, and the plot was thenceforth known as the "Jews' burying-ground"; it was the first Jewish cemetery in the city, and was situated in Spruce street near Ninth street; it has been the property of the Congregation Mickvé Israel for more than a century. David Franks (1720-93) was another prominent Jewish resident. He went to Philadelphia early in life and engaged in business with Nathan Levy, under the firm name of Levy & Franks, this being the first Jewish business-house in the city. In 1748, when The City Dancing Assembly, the city's most famous social organization, was founded, among the names on the subscription list were those of David Franks, Joseph Marks, and Samson Levy.Mickvé Israel Congregation.
The Kahal Kadosh Mickvé Israel, the first Jewish congregation in Philadelphia, had its beginnings about 1745 and is believed to have worshiped in a small house in Sterling alley. In 1761, owing to the influx of Jews from Spain and the West Indies, the question of building a synagogue was raised, but nothing was then accomplished in that direction. In 1773, when Barnard Gratz was parnas and Solomon Marache treasurer, a subscription was started "in order to support our holy worship and establish it on a more solid foundation." The number of Jewish residents in Philadelphia was suddenly increased at the outbreak of the American Revolution by the influx of Jewish patriots from New York, which had been captured by the British (Sept., 1776). The congregation had removed from the house in Sterling alley and then occupied quarters in Cherry alley, between Third and Fourth streets.
The building in Cherry alley, which had sufficed for the few families in the city, became inadequate, and steps were taken to secure a more commodious building. Gershom Mendez Seixas, who had fled from New York to Connecticut, was requested to act as the first rabbi of the reorganized congregation. The estimate for the new building was £600, and the subscription being inadequate, Haym Salomon, the banker and financial agent of Congress, agreed to pay one-fourth the cost. A lot was purchased in Cherry street, near Third street, and a suitable building erected. The governor of Pennsylvania and his official family were invited to attend the dedication ceremonies, which were held on Sept. 13, 1782. At this time the congregation had over 100 members (see list in Rosenbach's "Jews of Philadelphia," p. 22); its officers were Jonas Phillips (president), Michael Gratz, Solomon Marache, Solomon Myers Cohen, and Simon Nathan.
On Nov. 25, 1783, New York was evacuated by the British, and many of the members of the congregation returned to their former homes. The Congregation Shearith Israel recalled the Rev. Gershom Mendez Seixas to New York, and the Congregation Mickvé Israel elected the Rev. Jacob Raphael Cohen in his stead. The latter had officiated as ḥazzan of the Spanish and Portuguese synagogue in Montreal and had served in a like capacity in New York during the British occupation. He ministered to the Congregation Mickvé Israel until his death in Sept., 1811. As a result of the departure of its members, in 1788 the congregation encountered financial difficulties. A subscription list was started to meet the existing debts, and among those who contributed to it were Benjamin Franklin and David Rittenhouse. From this time on the congregation was ceaseless in its religious and charitable activities, and when Isaac Leeser's incumbency began, in 1829, it was, perhaps, the best-known synagogue in the United States. In 1815 Emanuel Nunes Carvalho was elected minister and continued in that capacity until his death in 1817; he was succeeded in 1824 by Abraham Israel Keys.Signers of Non-Importation Resolutions.
In 1765 the famous Non-Importation Resolutions were drawn up, and the names of many Jewish citizens are appended to it; by these resolutions, adopted Oct. 25, 1765, the merchants and other citizens of Philadelphia agreed "not to have any goods shipped from Great Britain until after the repeal of the Stamp Act." The Jewish signers included Benjamin Levy, David Franks, Samson Levy, Hyman Levy, Jr., Mathias Bush, Moses Mordecai, Michael Gratz, and Barnard Gratz. The last two were brothers who had left Upper Silesia in Germany about 1755 and settled in Philadelphia. They and their children became well known in the annals of the city (see Gratz). In 1777, just after the outbreak of the Revolutionary war, the following Jews agreed to accept the colonial paper money sanctioned by the king in lieu of gold and silver: Solomon Aaron, Joseph Solomon Kohn, Solomon Marache, Moses Mordecai, Barnard Soliman, and David Franks. Of these Moses Mordecai and David Franks had signed the Non-Importation Resolutions.In the War of Independence.
The Jews in Philadelphia took a prominent part in the War of Independence. David Franks was conspicuous for his loyalty to the British cause, being the English agent in charge of the prisoners; his daughter, Rebecca Franks, took part in the "Meschianza," the famous fête given in honor of General Howe during the British occupancy of Philadelphia. The majority of the Jews of the city, however, supported the American cause. Col. David S. Franks was aide-de-camp to General Arnold at Philadelphia in 1779; Solomon Bush was major of the Pennsylvania militia; Col. Isaac Franks served with distinction in the war, as did Philip Moses, Russell and Benjamin Nones. Haym Solomon made large loans to Congress, which were never repaid; his services as a financial agent during the war were invaluable. Another creditor of the Continental Congress was Aaron Levy, and his loans, like nearly all the others, were never fully repaid. At the close of the war the Jewish population of Philadelphia amounted to almost 500. When Washington was elected president of the United States the Congregation Mickvé Israel, together with the congregations of New York, Charleston, and Richmond, sent a congratulatory address, to which Washington replied (1790).
Although the majority of the early residents were of Portuguese or Spanish descent, some among them had emigrated from Germany and Poland. About the beginning of the nineteenth century a number of Jews from the latter countries, finding the services of the Congregation Mickvé Israel unfamiliar to them, resolved to form a new congregation which would use the ritual to which they had been accustomed. On Nov. 23, 1801, Leon van Amringe, Isaiah Nathan, Isaac Marks, Aaron Levi, Jr., Abraham Gumpert, and Abraham Moses took title to a plot of ground to be used as a place of burial for members of the newly formed congregation. On Oct. 10, 1802, the "German Hebrewsformed themselves into a society in the city and county of Philadelphia, which was denominated the 'Hebrew German Society Rodef Shalom'"; it was one of the earliest German Jewish congregations in America. The society was reorganized and chartered in 1812. Among the earlier rabbis were Wolf Benjamin, Jacob Lipman, Bernhard Illowy, Henry Vidaver, Moses Sulzbacher, and Moses Rau. In 1849 Jacob Frankel (1808-87) was elected ḥazzan, and about this time the congregation grew in numbers and importance. Frankel acted as chaplain of hospitals during the Civil war. On Sept. 8, 1847, when Naphtali Kahn was ḥazzan, the congregation removed to its new building in Julianna street, where it remained until Sept. 9, 1870, when the present (1904) structure at Broad and Mt. Vernon streets was dedicated. Marcus Jastrow, elected in 1866, served the congregation as rabbi until 1892, when he was elected rabbi emeritus (died 1903); during his ministry Rodef Shalom became one of the leading congregations in the United States. In 1892 Henry Berkowitz, the present incumbent, was elected rabbi.
Data relating to the earlier Jewish charitable organizations are very meager. It is natural to suppose that the Congregation Mickvé Israel, in the absence of any other organization for that purpose, looked after the wants of the poorer Jewish residents. In 1784 there was a society for the relief of destitute strangers, but the records of this organization have disappeared. In Oct., 1813, a Society for the Visitation of the Sick and for Mutual Assistance was organized, with Jacob Cohen as its first president. It existed for over fifty years. In 1819 several ladies organized the still-existing Female Hebrew Benevolent Society, the first Jewish charitable organization in Philadelphia and the first one in the United States controlled exclusively by women. In 1820 it elected its first board of officers, consisting of Mrs. Rebecca J. Phillips (first directress), Mrs. Belle Cohen (second directress), Mrs. S. Bravo (treasurer), Miss Rebecca Gratz (secretary). Mrs. Abraham S. Wolf has acted as its president for the past thirty years. In 1822 the United Hebrew Benevolent Society was organized. The oldest Hebrew Sunday-school in America was formed in Philadelphia. On Feb. 4, 1838, a mumber of ladies met and resolved "that a Sunday-school be established under the direction of the board" of the Female Hebrew Benevolent Society; the school was formally opened on March 4, 1838; and it was about this time that the Ladies' Hebrew Sewing Society was founded.
These facts attest the early activity of the women of Philadelphia in the cause of religion and education. Rebecca Gratz (1781-1869) was, perhaps, the best-known American Jewess of her day. Not only was she one of the organizers of the Hebrew Sunday-School Society, but she was identified with nearly all the charitable organizations in the city. Another woman prominent in the life of the city at this time was Louisa B. Hart (see Michael Hart), who was untiring in her devotion to the religious education of the young. Others prominently identified with the Hebrew Sunday-School Society were Simha C. Peixotta, Ellen Phillips, and Isabella II. Rosenbach. The attendance at the various schools of the society, of which Mrs. Ephraim Lederer is president, now numbers over 3,000.
The most virile force in the community when these organizations were founded was Isaac Leeser. He had succeeded Abraham Israel Keys, in 1829, as rabbi of the Congregation Mickvé Israel. He was essentially an organizer, and his name is connectedwith the inception of nearly every charitable and educational institution of his time. In 1843 he issued "The Occident and American Jewish Advocate," which he edited for twenty-five years. He provided text-books and catechisms for the use of the young; he made a masterly translation of the Bible; and he rendered into English the Hebrew prayers. In 1848 he was the moving spirit in the organization of the Hebrew Education Society of Philadelphia.
The first suggestion toward the establishment of a school for the higher education of Jewish youth came from Mordecai M. Noah, the well-known journalist of New York. In 1843 he advocated in the "Occident" the formation of such an institution, the plan receiving the warm support of Leeser. In 1847 a ball was given for the purpose of raising funds for the "establishment of a Hebrew school in this city." Later a public call resulted in the meeting of twenty-five supporters of the plan, Zadoc A. Davis being elected chairman, and on July 16, 1848, the Hebrew Education Society was formally organized, with Solomon Solis as its first president. On April 7, 1851, the school was opened with twenty-two pupils, and since that time the attendance has steadily increased.Maimonides College and Jews' Hospital.
On Dec. 4, 1864, a meeting was held which resulted in the establishment of the first Jewish theological seminary in America. The need of such an institution was strongly felt, as there were numerous synagogues in the country, but few persons capable of filling the rabbinical office. The seminary was established under the joint auspices of the Hebrew Education Society and the Board of Delegates of American Israelites, and was named "Maimonides College"; it was opened Oct. 28, 1867, with Isaac Leeser as its provost. Sabato Morais, Marcus Jastrow, Aaron S. Bettelheim, L. Buttenwieser, William H. Williams; and the provost comprised the faculty. At a later date Hyman Polano and George Jacobs were added to this number. Abraham Hart was president, and Mayer Sulzberger secretary, of the board of trustees. Moses A. Dropsie and Isidore Binswanger acted successively as president of the college. After an activity extending through six years the work of Maimonides College was discontinued owing to lack of support (Dec., 1873). The work of the Hebrew Education Society has met with great success during the last twenty years. In 1892 the society received $15,000 from the estate of Ellen Phillips. Louis Gerstley acted as its president for many years, and David Sulzberger has been its secretary since 1876. It is largely owing to the latter's activity that the society has greatly extended its work to meet the new conditions due to the growth of the population and the Russian immigration. Edward Wolf is now president of the society.
The first Jewish hospital in Philadelphia originated in a suggestion of Abraham Sulzberger, who insisted in 1864 that a hospital was an urgent necessity in the community and that steps should be taken at once to secure the funds necessary to establish one. The first officers were Alfred T. Jones (president), Isidore Binswanger (vice-president), Samuel Weil (treasurer), Mayer Sulzberger (secretary), Henry J. Hunt (corresponding secretary). The association was incorporated Sept. 23, 1865. The first site of the hospital was at Fifty-sixth street and Haverfordroad. Within a decade the needs of the first hospital had outgrown its accommodations, and in 1873, during the presidency of Abraham S. Wolf, it removed to Old York road. In 1901 Meyer Guggenheim presented to the association $80,000 for the purpose of erecting a private auxiliary hospital. Mrs. Sarah Eisner has recently built a Home for Nurses. Among other buildings on the hospital grounds are the Home for Aged and Infirm Israelites, the Loeb Operating Building, the M. A. Loeb Dispensary, and the Lucien Moss Home for Incurables. The Jewish Hospital is one of the best-equipped and best-managed institutions in the United States. William B. Hackenburg succeeded Abraham S. Wolf as president in 1878, and has served in that capacity ever since. To them is due, in a great measure, the success of the hospital. The Jewish Maternity Association was founded Nov. 3, 1873. In addition to the maternity hospital there is a training-school for nurses, of which Mrs. S. Belle Cohn is president.
In 1855 the ladies of the various congregations of the city, "deeply impressed with the necessity of providing a home for destitute and unprotected children of Jewish parentage," organized the Jewish Foster Home. Its first building was in Eleventh street, near Jefferson street, and was dedicated in May, 1855. Mrs. Anna Allen was its first president. In 1874 the control of the home was transferred to a board of male directors, aided by a ladies' associate board. The home was removed in 1881 to Mill street, Germantown, its present quarters. Isidore Binswanger was president for fifteen years, and during his term of office the home became one of the best institutions of its kind in the country. Mason Hirsh was president for a number of years; Leo Loeb now fills that position, and S. M. Fleischman is superintendent. The Orphans' Guardians, or Familien Waisen Erziehungs Verein, an institution with a mission similar to the foregoing, was organized March 26, 1868, chiefly through the efforts of R. Samuel Hirsch of the Congregation Keneseth Israel. Instead of keeping the children together in one institution, this society endeavors to find homes for them among respectable Jewish families.Temple Keneseth Israel.
The Reform Congregation Keneseth Israel, the largest congregation in Philadelphia, was organized March 21, 1847. Its first rabbi was B. H. Gotthelf, who held services in a hall at No. 528 N. Second street. The Reform movement, which had originated in Germany, soon extended itself to America, and L. Naumberg, Solomon Deutsch, and David Einhorn (1861-66) furthered its progress in this congregation. The first marked change in the character of the liturgy took place in 1856. Samuel Hirsch succeeded to the rabbinate in 1866; he introduced many changes in the service. In 1887 Joseph Krauskopf was elected rabbi; and he has contributed much to the success and standing of this congregation. It was during his incumbency that the Congregation Keneseth Israel became the largest in Philadelphia; it has about 700 members. Its synagogue is situated in Broad street, above Columbia avenue. In 1893 Joseph Leonard Levy was elected associate rabbi, but he resigned in 1902 to take up the position of rabbi at Pittsburg. The congregation supports a free public library and a reading-room.
Isaac Leeser retired from the Congregation Mickvé Israel in 1850, and was succeeded by Sabato Morais, who exerted a lasting influence upon the Jewish institutions of the city. He was greatly opposed to the Reform movement and was the champion of traditional Judaism. Perhaps the greatest monument of his life is the Jewish Theological Seminary of America, which he founded in 1886. He served the congregation until his death in 1897; Leon H. Elmaleh is now rabbi. The Gratz College, the most liberally endowed institution of Jewish learning in the city, is controlled by a board oftrustees elected by the congregation. It was founded under a deed of trust executed by Hyman Gratz in 1856, which became operative in 1893; Moses A. Dropsie is president of the board of trustees. The college has a faculty of three, and has twenty-five students. The amount of the endowment is nearly $200,000.
Many synagogues were founded in the city after 1840, when the Congregation Beth Israel was founded (June 12), the first rabbi being Simon E. Cohen Noot. It now worships in Eighth street, above Master street, and Menahem M. Eichler is the officiating rabbi. The Congregation Beth El Emeth was founded in 1857, and Isaac Leeser, who had left the Congregation Mickvé Israel, became its rabbi, remaining so until his death (1868). This synagogue became influential in the affairs of the community; Joseph Newhouse, Morris Rosenbach, and Alfred T. Jones served at various times as presidents. George Jacobs was elected rabbi in 1869, and remained with the congregation until his death in 1884. The congregation, failing to secure a suitable successor after several attempts, disbanded a few years later. The Congregation Adath Jeshurun, Seventh street and Columbia avenue, was founded in Aug., 1859, S. B. Breidenbach being its first rabbi; Henry Iliowizi held the office from 1888 until 1901 (resigned), when B. C. Ehrenreich was appointed in his stead. Both the Jewish Foster Home and the Jewish Hospital Association have synagogues, that of the latter being the gift of Mrs. Rose Frank, as a memorial to her husband, Henry S. Frank.Literary Activity.
The earliest publication relating to the Jews was issued in 1763 from the press of Andrew Stewart; it was a sermon by Moses Mendelssohn delivered by his preceptor David Hirchel Frankel, and translated from the German. The first Hebrew Bible that appeared in the United States was published in Philadelphia in 1814 by Thomas Dobson, the printer being William Fry. The best-known printer of Hebrew books in the country was Charles Sherman, who imported matrices from Amsterdam; Abraham Hart was one of the best-known general publishers, Thackeray's first published book being issued with his imprint. The first dealer in the United States who dealt exclusively in rare books was Moses Polock (1817-1903); at his death he was the oldest bibliophile in the country. The original Jewish Publication Society was established in Philadelphia Nov. 9, 1845, Abraham Hart being its first president. The society owed its existence to Isaac Leeser. It published eleven works, including two by Grace Aguilar. The present Jewish Publication Society of America, a national organization, with headquarters at Philadelphia, was formed June 3, 1888; Morris Newburger was its first president. The society has published many works of value, including Israel Zangwill's "Children of the Ghetto"; a new translation of the Bible is now in progress, the Book of Psalms having already been issued. Mayer Sulzberger is chairman of the publication committee; Edwin Wolf is president.
In 1904 the best collection of Hebrew books and manuscripts in the city, that of Mayer Sulzberger, was transferred to the Jewish Theological Seminary of America at New York.Newspapers.
There have been several Jewish newspapers inPhiladelphia, of which "The Occident" was the first; it was founded by Isaac Leeser in 1843, who edited it until his death in 1868; it was edited for one year thereafter by Mayer Sulzberger. The "Jewish Index" was issued in 1872, but it lasted only a year. In 1875 the "Jewish Record" appeared, under the editorship of Alfred T. Jones. The "Jewish Exponent" was first issued April 15, 1887; its present editors are R. Charles Hoffman, Ephraim Lederer, and Felix Gerson. There are several daily papers published in Yiddish, the most important being the "Jewish Evening Post."
The Young Men's Hebrew Association, an outgrowth of a former institution—the Hebrew Association—was organized May 12, 1875, with Mayer Sulzberger as president. The object of the association is "to promote a higher culture among young men"; its present membership numbers over 1,000, under the presidency of Adolph Eichholz. Its building is situated in North Broad street. The Young Women's Union was originally a branch of the Hebrew Education Society, and was organized through the efforts of Mrs. Fanny Binswanger Hoffman on Feb. 5, 1885; the object of the union is to educate the younger children of immigrant Jews. It maintains a kindergarten, day-nursery, sewing-school, etc. Mrs. Julia Friedberger Eschner is president.
There are several Jewish social organizations. The Mercantile Club was established Nov. 10, 1853, and incorporated April 17, 1869. Louis Bomeisler was its first president. The club occupies a building in North Broad street; Clarence Wolf is its present president. The Garrick, the Progress, and the Franklin are other Jewish clubs.
In 1876, in commemoration of the centennial of American Independence, the Order B'nai B'rith and Israelites of America erected in Fairmount Park a statue representing Religious Liberty. It was designed by Moses Ezekiel, and was the first public monument erected by Jews in the United States.
From a period immediately after the Revolutionary war efforts have been made to collect money for the charitable organizations by appealing to the general public. Lotteries were held early in the nineteenth century; subscription lists were constantly being formed. A ball was given in 1843 in aid of three societies. In 1853 and in 1854 dinners were given in aid of the Hebrew Charitable Fund, at which many noted citizens were present. The year following, a ball was given instead of a dinner, and it proved such a success financially that it was thought expedientto continue this form of entertainment; the Hebrew Charity-Ball Association was formed in consequence of this determination, and annual balls were given with great success until 1901, when they were discontinued owing to the establishment of the Federation of Jewish Charities. The United Hebrew Charities, a union of six institutions, was organized in 1869, with Simon W. Arnold as its first president. Max Herzberg is president. The combination of the principal charitable societies of Philadelphia was formed on March 17, 1901; Jacob Gimbel was its first president. The federation as originally formed embraced nine institutions—the Jewish Hospital Association, Jewish Foster Home, Society of United Hebrew Charities, Hebrew Education Society, Orphans' Guardians, Jewish Maternity Association, Jewish Immigration Society, Young Women's Union, and Hebrew Sunday-School Society. Later, the National Farm School, the National Jewish Hospital for Consumptives (at Denver), and the Alliance Israélite Universelle became beneficiaries. The income of the Federation (1903) was $123,039, with a membership of 1,916.
In 1901 Lewis Elkin bequeathed $2,000,000 to the city of Philadelphia for the support of superannuated female school-teachers. This is the largest bequest for a charitable object yet made by a Jewish resident of the city. Simon Muhr among other benefactions left a bequest for general educational purposes.
In 1882 the great exodus from Russia took place; thousands of Jews forced to emigrate took up their residence in Philadelphia; at the present time they constitute a majority of the Jewish population. A society for the protection of immigrants arriving from the Slavonic provinces was organized Oct. 5, 1884, and called the "Association of Jewish Immigrants"; Louis E. Levy is president. In 1903, 5,310 Jewish immigrants arrived at the port of Philadelphia. They are now generally prosperous; many have entered the learned professions, and they have built synagogues and hospitals in the southern portion of the city, where most of them now reside. They have many synagogues and ḥebras, the most important being the Congregation B'nai Abraham, founded in 1882; B. L. Levinthal is now rabbi of this and the associated congregations. The Society Hachnasath Orechim, or Wayfarers' Lodge, was organized Nov. 16, 1890, and chartered April 29, 1891; it is one of the most active charitable associations in Philadelphia. The Hebrew Literature Society,founded in 1885, has opened a new building at 310 Catherine street. The Home for Hebrew Orphans, The Jewish Sheltering Home for the Homeless and Aged, the Mount Sinai Hospital Association, the Pannonia Beneficial Association, and the Talmud Torah are all situated in the southern portion of the city. In addition, the newcomers have many social, political, and literary organizations.
In Philadelphia there were in 1904, not including lodges, over 160 Jewish organizations, of which over 50 are synagogues; the remainder consisting of hospitals, foster homes, Sunday-schools, benevolent associations, colleges, young men's Hebrew associations, social clubs, literary societies, etc. (A list of local organizations was published in the "American Jewish Year Book" for 5661 [1900-1].) The income of the synagogues is about $90,000; the income of the charitable organizations, about $160,000.
From the earliest times the Jews of Philadelphia have been prominent in the learned professions. As stated above, the first Jew to hold a judicial position was Isaac Miranda (1727). One of the earliest Jewish lawyers was Moses Levy, who was admitted to the bar in 1778. Isaac Franks was prothonotary of the Supreme Court of Pennsylvania. Among other distinguished Jewish lawyers were: Zalegman Phillips, Samson Levy, Joseph Simon Cohen, Jonas Altamont Phillips, Henry M. Phillips, Moses A. Dropsie, Simon Sterne, Stephen S. Remak, Joseph G. Rosengarten, Edward H. Weil, S. M. Hyneman, Jacob Singer (at one time registrar of wills), Ephraim Lederer, D. W. Amram. Mayer Sulzberger is president judge of the court of common pleas.
The most prominent of the early Jewish physicians of Philadelphia was Isaac Hays (1796-1879), who founded the "American Journal of the Medical Sciences"; among other physicians of distinction are: Jacob de Solis-Cohen, Lewis W. Steinbach, Solomon Solis-Cohen, A. A. Eschner, and David Riesman.
Many have achieved distinction in literature, science, and journalism: Michael Heilprin, his son Angelo Heilprin (geologist), Leon Hyneman, Simon A. Stern, Felix Gerson, Henry S. Morais, Milton Goldsmith, Leo S. Rowe, Morris Jastrow, Jr. (librarian of the University of Pennsylvania), Bunford Samuel (librarian of the Ridgway Library), Isaac J. Schwatt, Charles Henry Hart, J. G. Rosengarten.
The roll of Jewish officers, Philadelphians, who served with distinction during the Civil war includes the names of Morris J. Asch, Israel Moses, Alfred Mordecai, Jr., Frank Marx Etting, Justus Steinberger, Jonathan Manly Emanuel, Jacob Solis-Cohen, Max Einstein, Aaron Lazarus, Max Friedman, Joseph L. Moss, William Moss, Lyon Levy Emanuel, Isaac M. Abraham, Adolph G. Rosengarten, Joseph G. Rosengarten, and Benjamin J. Levy.
The Jews of Philadelphia have been influential in finance as well as in music and the fine arts, and have been identified in every way with the growth of the municipality.
Members of the Etting family have taken a prominent part in public life from the first. Lewis Charles Levin (1808-60) was thrice elected to the national House of Representatives; Leonard Myers and Henry M. Phillips also were members of the Lower House. In the domain of art the names of Katherine M. Cohen, Herman N. Hyneman, Max Rosenthal, and Albert Rosenthal may be mentioned; and in the field of music, those of Simon Hassler, Mark Hassler, Samuel L. Hermann, Henry Hahn, and Frederick E. Hahn.
The total population of Philadelphia is about 1,420,000, including about 75,000 Jews.
- H. P. Rosenbach, Hist. of the Jews in Philadelphia Prior to 1800, Philadelphia, 1883;
- H. S. Morais, The Jews of Philadelphia, 1894 (the most complete account);
- Morris Jastrow, Jr., in Publications Am. Jew. Hist. Soc. No. 1, pp. 49-61;
- Henry Berkowitz, ib. No. 9, pp. 123-127;
- A. S. W. Rosenbach, ib. No. 5, pp. 191-198;
- Watson's Annals;
- Westcott, History of Philadelphia;
- Memoirs Hist. Soc. Pennsylvania;
- The Occident;
- The Jewish Exponent:
- American Jewish Year Book, 1901;
- Fifty Years' Work of the Hebrew Education Society, Report for 1899 (containing many portraits);
- Archives of the Congregation Mickvé Israel.