King of Spain; called the "poet king" because he was devoted to poetry and art; born at Valladolid April 8, 1605; died Sept. 17, 1665. He delegated the regulation of affairs of state to his favorite, D. Gaspar Guzman, Count de Olivares, whom he made a duke and his prime minister. "El Conde-Duque," the count-duke de Olivares, wished to remedy the scarcity of men and money which had been brought about in Spain by the expulsion of the Jews and Moors and by continual wars. For this purpose he invited Jews from Salonica and other cities, who, being descendants of those exiled from Spain, could speak Spanish, to come to Madrid. In spite of the oppositionof the tribunal of the Inquisition, the all-powerful De Olivares succeeded in winning over the majority of the city council, several important divines, and a not inconsiderable number of inquisitors, to favor his plan. Encouraged by this success, he promised the Jewish arrivals a synagogue and religious freedom, and he formed the plan of removing the tribunal from Spain. In order to prevent this the grand inquisitor, Cardinal de Santa Balbina, made earnest remonstrances to the king, telling him the Church was in danger and the state treasury was threatened with impoverishment. Intolerance won the day and Philip IV. showed himself a servant of the Church. He promised to drive the Jews who had come, not only out of Madrid, but out of the whole kingdom. The clergy stirred up the people against them; placards were posted on the principal streets of Madrid and other cities with the words "Viva la ley de Moises, y muera la de Cristo" (Long live the law of Moses! Down with the teaching of Christ!). The king had to dismiss his minister (1643).
- The MSS. Noticia del Nacimiento, Vida y Hechos de Don Gaspar de Guzman, Conde-Duque de Olivares, publ. 8 de Febrero de 1643 in Ad. de Castro's Historia de los Judios en España, pp. 219 et seq.;
- Amador de los Rios, Historia de los Judios de España, iii. 546 et seq.