Russian economist; born at Odessa in 1853; a member of the well-known banking family of that name. He studied economics and diplomacy at Paris and Bonn, and became private secretary to Count Schuvalov in London (1876-79); at the same time he was correspondent of the "Journal des Débats"; later, of the "Temps." He was appointed member of the Superior Council of Commerce in Russia. His writings are mainly devoted to economic and financial subjects: "L'Impôt sur les Alcohols et le Monopole en Allemagne" (Paris, 1886); "Le Logement de l'Ouvrier et du Pauvre" (1897); "Les Finances de la Russie"(1899). He publishes an annual financial review, "L'Année Financière," and is the chief editor of the "Dictionnaire de l'Economie Politique."
- Nouveau Larousse Illustré.