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SAMUEL BEN KALONYMUS HE-ḤASID OF SPEYER:

Tosafist, liturgical poet, and philosopher of the twelfth century; surnamed also "the Prophet" (Solomon Luria, Responsa, No. 29). He seems to have lived in Spain and in France. He is quoted in the tosafot to Yebamot (6lb) and Soṭah (12a), as well as by Samuel b. Meïr (RaSHBaM) in his commentary on "'Arbe Pesaḥim" (Pes. 109a).

Samuel was the author of a commentary on the treatise Tamid, mentioned by Abraham b. David in his commentary thereon, and of a liturgical poem, entitled "Shir ha-Yiḥud," divided into seven parts corresponding to the seven days of the week. This poem is a philosophical hymn on the unity of God, for which Ibn Gabirol's "Keter Malkut" served as the basis. Like the latter, Samuel he-Ḥasid treats of the divine nature from the negative side, that is to say, from the point of view that God is not like man. The Hebrew, if not very poetical, is pure; but foreign words are used for the philosophical terms. The recitation of the poem was forbidden by Solomon Luria; but other rabbis, among whom was Samuel Judah Katzenellenbogen, who wrote a commentary on it, decided to the contrary. On the different opinions concerning the authorship of the "Shir ha-Yiḥud" see Dukes in "Orient, Lit." vii., cols. 483, 484.

Bibliography:
  • Michael, Or ha-Ḥayyim, p. 592;
  • Dukes, Orient, Lit. vii., cols. 483-488;
  • idem, Neuhebräische Religiöse Poesie, p. 105;
  • Landshuth, Siddur Hegyon Leb, pp. 529-531;
  • Steinschneider, Cat. Bodl. cols. 2413-2417;
  • Zunz, Z. G. pp. 55, 72, 74.
J. M. Sel.
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