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SCHULKLOPFER:

Name given in the Middle Ages to a beadle who called the members of the congregation to service in the synagogue. It is stated in the "Minhagim" of R. Jacob Levi, or Maharil (ed. 1688, p. 88b), that the beadle used to summon the congregation for service daily except on the Ninth of Ab. At Neustadt the beadle struck four times on the door: first one blow; after a short interval two blows; and then a fourth. R. Israel Isserlein, rabbi of that town, traces this custom to the Biblical passage, "I shall come to thee and bless thee" (Ex. xx. 24), the numerical values of the letters of the first word in the Hebrew text, , being 1, 2, 1. In the Rhine province, however, it was customary to strike thrice only—a single blow followed by two others. See also Jew. Encyc. iv. 197, s.v. Community.

The Christians called these officials "campanatores" (bell-strikers) in Latin, and "Glöckener" or "Glöckner" in German—names by which similar officials of the Church are called.

Bibliography:
  • Joseph of Münster, Lekeṭ Yosher, i. 4b (Munich MSS. Nos. 404, 405);
  • Güdemann, Gesch. iii. 95.
A. M. Sel.
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