English physicist; born at Frankfort-on-the-Main Sept. 12, 1851. He was educated at Frankfort, at Owens College, Manchester, and at the University of Heidelberg (Ph.D. 1873). He early took an interest in physics, especially in spectrum analysis; he was appointed chief of the expedition that went to Siam in 1875 to observe the eclipse of the sun, and he took part in a similar expedition to Egypt in 1882. In recognition of his researches he obtained the medal of the Royal Society, of which he is a fellow (1893). He has been professor of physics in Owens College since 1885, and a large number of papers by him are preserved in the "Transactions of the Royal Society." He is a large contributor to various scientific journals.
- Poggendorff, Biographisch-Literarisches Handwörterbuch;
- Who's Who, 1905.