German educationist and writer; born at Wunstorf, Hanover, Nov. 1, 1864; studied philosophy and Germanic philology at Heidelberg (Ph. D. 1894). For some years he acted as teacher in various schools in Altona and Hamburg, and in 1900 he was called to Münster, Westphalia, as director of the Jewish teachers' seminary there. Besides many scientific articles in various periodicals Spanier has published the following works: "Thomas Murner's Narrenbeschwörung" (Halle, 1894), with introduction, notes, and glossary; "Vom Alten und Modernen Sturm und Drang" (Berlin, 1896); "Künstlerischer Bilderschmuck für Schulen" (Leipsic, 1897; 3d ed. 1902); and "Gustav Falke als Lyriker" (Hamburg, 1900).