UNGER, EPHRAIM SOLOMON:
German educator and writer; born at Coswig-on-the-Elbe March 8, 1789; died Nov. 1, 1870. He studied philosophy, mathematics, and natural science at the University of Erfurt, and from 1810 to 1816 was privat-docent in mathematics and philosophy at the same institution. In 1820 he founded, together with his brother David, a school for mathematics and modern languages, which fourteen years later was transformed into a real-school. The school board offered him the directorship on condition that he embraced Christianity, but he refused to do so. He retained, however, the position of "Oberlehrer" until 1862, in which year he was pensioned.
Unger was for many years a member of the city council of Erfurt. He was made an honorary citizen; and the King of Prussia conferred upon him the title of professor and decorated him with the Order of the Red Eagle in recognition of his services. Through his efforts the Jewish congregation of Erfurt was incorporated in 1812; and for many years he was its first overseer. Of his works the following may be mentioned: "Handbuch der Mathematischen Analysis," 4 vols. (Gotha, 1824-27); "Abriss der Geschichte der Zahlenlehre von Pythagoras bis Diophant"; and "Die Bedeutung der Zwei Bücher des Apollonius von den Berechnungen für die Geometrische Analysis."