Russian philosopher and author; born at Odessa 1830; died at Pisa Jan. 27, 1901. He resided for many years in Ancona, Naples, Florence, Leghorn, and Pisa. He translated into Italian the works of A. Pushkin ("Poesie di A. Puschkin," Odessa, 1855), and wrote in Italian the following tragedies founded on Biblical subjects: "Assalonne," Odessa, 1857; "Sansone," ib. 1859; "Jefte," Milan, 1862; and "Giobbe," ib. 1872. He devoted himself to philosophical studies, and during his latter years to the investigation of spiritualism, the following works being the results of these activities: "Psicografia, Ossia Descrizione dell' Anima con Segni Sensibili, Preceduta da una Nuova Veduta Sopra Alcuni Punti Cardinali della Filosofia Obiettiva" (with illustrations), Naples, 1870; "L'Anima Umana nel Suo Stadio Oriundo, Terrestre e Futuro" (illustrated), Milan, 1875; "Antropobiotica Generale, Ossia la Vita dell' Anima e del Corpo nella Condizione Sana, Inferma, e Convalescente," Florence, 1879; and "Prove Incontestabili delle Pazzie d'un Pseudo-Alienista Appalesate" (against Cesare Lombroso), Leghorn, 1887.