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CALM, MARIE (pseudonym, M. Ruhland):

German authoress and advocate of women's suffrage; born at Arolsen, Germany, April 3, 1832; died at Cassel, Germany, Feb. 22, 1887. She managed a seminary for indigent girls at Cassel, and was one of the original members of the Allgemeine Deutsche Frauenverein. Aside from her books on household economics and etiquette, she was the author of: "Bilder und Klänge," poems, Cassel, 1871; "Weibliches Wirken in Küche, Wohnzimmer, und Salon," Berlin, 1874; third edition, 1882; "Leo," novel, 1876; "Ein Blick ins Leben," Stuttgart, 1877; "Wilde Blumen," novel, Bremen, 1880; "Echter Adel," Stuttgart, 1883; and "Bella's Blaubuch," Leipsic, 1883.

Bibliography:
  • Lexikon Deutscher Frauen der Feder, i. 120, ii. 214;
  • Brockhaus, Konversations-Lexikon, Supplement, p. 215.
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