Austrian librarian and archeologist; born at Presburg, Hungary, Nov. 9, 1856. He studied at Vienna (Ph.D., 1883) and Berlin, devoting himself especially to philological, historical, and archeological studies. In Berlin he attended lectures at the Hildesheimer Rabbinical Seminary. In 1884 he was made an officer of the Vienna University Library, where he now occupies the position of scriptor. In addition to various contributions on philological, archeological, educational, and bibliographical subjects in reviews and magazines, he published: (with W. Kubitschek) "Führer Durch Carnuntum," Vienna, 1891 (4th ed., 1894); "Die Berliner Schulreform-Conferenz" (Dec. 4-17, 1890), Vienna, 1891; "Die Preussische Mittelschulreform und das Oesterreichische Mittelschulwesen," Vienna, 1892; "Graf Leo Thun-Hohenstein, Franz Exner und Herm. Bonitz: Beiträge zur Gesch. der Oesterreichischen Unterrichtsreform," Vienna, 1893; "Graf Leo Thun-Hohenstein," 1895; "Die Organisation des Höheren Unterrichts in Oesterreich," Munich, 1897; "Die Qualifikation für den Staatlichen Bibliotheksberuf in Oesterreich," Vienna, 1898; "Register zu den Archaeologisch-Epigraphischen Mitteilungen aus Oesterreich-Ungarn," Vienna, 1902.