Austrian physician and writer; born at Gyönk, Hungary, Nov. 19, 1840. After graduating from the gymnasium at Kaschau, he went successively to the universities of Budapest (1861) and Vienna (1863), graduating (M.D.) from the latter in 1867. He became privat-docent at Vienna in 1881, and chief of division at the Poliklinik of Vienna in 1885. He has published a "Compendium der Augenheilkunde" that has gone through four editions, and (in "Deutsche Chirurgie") "Die Endoskopie der Harnröhre und Blase." He was the first to use the endoscope. He is known for his many surgical innovations as well as through numerous monographs in his special department. Professional activities did not hinder Grünfeld from interesting himself in the affairs of the Jewish community. He was one of the founders, and for more than eight years president, of the Oesterreichisch-Israelitische Union.