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ISAAC BEN SAMUEL HA-ZAḲEN:

French tosafist and Biblical commentator; flourished at Ramerupt and Dampierre in the twelfth century. He died, according to Grätz ("Gesch." vi. 210), about 1200; according to Gross ("Gallia Judaica," p. 161, and "R. E. J." vii. 76), between 1185 and 1195; and as he is known to have reached an advanced age, Gross supposes that he was not born later than 1115. On the other hand, Michael ("Or ha-Ḥayyim," p. 512) says that as Isaac b. Samuel was spoken of as "the sainted master" ("Sefer ha-Terumah," §§ 131, 161; Tos., Zeb. 12b, 59b), a term generally given to martyrs, he may have been killed at the same time as his son Elhanan (1184). On his father's side Isaac was a grandson of R. Simḥah of Vitry, author of the Maḥzor Vitry; on his mother's side he was a nephew of R. Tam, of Rashbam, and of Isaac b. Meïr (RiBaM), a great-grandson of Rashi, and a relative of R. Eleazar of Worms. He was surnamed "ha-Zaḳen" (the elder) to distinguish him from another tosafist of the same name, Isaac b. Abraham, surnamed "ha-Baḥur" (the younger). He is often quoted as R. Isaac of Dampierre ("Maimuniyyot," Ma'akalot Asurot, No. 5; "Shibbole ha-Leḳeṭ" ii., No. 40), but it seems that he lived first at Ramerupt, where his maternal grandfather resided ("Sefer ha-Nayyar," p. 162; "Maimuniyyot," l.c.). It was also at Ramerupt that he studied under his uncle R. Tam (Luria, Responsa, No. 29); after the latter had gone to Troyes, Isaac b. Samuel directed his school. Isaac settled at Dampierre later, and founded there a flourishing and well-attended school ("Or Zarua',"i. 126). It is said that he had sixty pupils, each of whom, besides being generally well grounded in Talmud, knew an entire treatise by heart, so that the whole Talmud was stored in the memories of his pupils (Menahem, "Ẓedah la-Derek," Introduction). As he lived under Philip Augustus, at whose hands the Jews suffered much, Isaac prohibited the buying of confiscated Jewish property, and ordered that any so bought be restored to its original owner. A particular interest attaches to one of his responsa, in which he relies on the oral testimony of his aunt, the wife of R. Isaac b. Meïr, and on that of the wife of, R. Eleazar of Worms, a great-granddaughter of Rashi ("Sefer ha-Nayyar," p. 167a).

Isaac's tosafot completed the commentary of Rashi on the Talmud (Romm of Wilna included in his edition of the Talmud Isaac ben Samuel's tosafot on Ḳiddushin). He also compiled and edited with great erudition all the preceding explanations to Rashi's commentary. His first collection was entitled "Tosefot Yeshanim," which, however, was afterward revised and developed. He is quoted on almost every page of the Tosafot, and in various works, especially in the "Sefer ha-Terumah" of his pupil Baruch b. Isaac of Worms, and in the "Or Zaṙua'" of Isaac b. Moses.

Isaac is mentioned as a Biblical commentator by Judah b. Eliezer ("Minḥat Yehudah," p. 8b), who quotes also a work of Isaac's entitled "Yalḳuṭe Midrash" (ib. p. 22a); by Isaac ha-Levi; by Hezekiah b. Manoah in his "Ḥazzeḳuni"; and in two other commentaries (see "Kerem Ḥemed," vii. 68). Isaac b. Samuel is supposed to be the author also of several liturgical poems, of a piyyuṭ to the Hafṭarah (Landshuth, "'Ammude ha-'Abodah," p. 108), and of a piyyuṭ for Purim (Maḥzor Vitry, No. 255; comp. Luzzatto in Berliner's "Magazin," v. 27, Hebr. part). The authorship of these piyyuṭim may, however, belong to the liturgical writer Isaac b. Samuel of Narbonne.

Bibliography:
  • Azulai, Shem ha-Gedolim, i.;
  • Michael, Or haḤayyim, pp. 511-513;
  • Weiss, Dor, iv. 286, 342, 349;
  • Grätz, Gesch. 3d ed., vi. 210, 211, 214;
  • Gross, Gallia Judaica, pp. 161-168, 638;
  • idem, in R. E. J. vii. 76;
  • Neubauer, ib. xvii. 67;
  • Zunz, Z. G. p. 33, passim.
S. S. M. Sel.
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