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JACQUES, HEINRICH:

Austrian deputy; born in Vienna Feb. 24, 1831; shot himself Jan. 25, 1894. He studied philosophy and history at Heidelberg, and afterward jurisprudence at Vienna (Dr. Juris, 1856). After having been for five years manager of the Vienna banking firm of Hermann von Wertheimstein Söhne, he severed his connection with the house in 1859, and settled in Vienna as an attorney.

In 1879 Jacques was delegated from the first district of Vienna to the Reichsrath, where he joined the constitutional party ("Verfassungspartei"), and where he secured the passage of a law providing that a certain amount of property, the minimum sufficient for subsistence, should be exempt from taxation. He also endeavored, by repeated motions, to arrange that the full right to pension—especially for railway and postal employees—should commence after thirty-five years' service.

Jacques was director of the following enterprises: the Theissbahn, the Süd-Norddeutsche Verbindungsbahn, the Südbahn, the Creditanstalt, and the Wiener Handelsakademie; in the interests of the last-named institution he labored for twenty years, first as its founder, and afterward as its vice-president. In 1870 he superintended the collection for the wounded in the Franco-Prussian war, and in 1872 was decorated with the Prussian Order of the Crown.

His best-known works are: "Theorie und Praxis im Civilrecht," Vienna, 1857; "Denkschrift über die Stellung der Juden in Oesterreich," 4th ed., 1859; "Unterrichtsrath und Unterrichtswesen in Oesterreich," 1863; "Revolution und Reaction in Oesterreich 1848-49," 1867; "Die Wuchergesetzgebung und das Civilund Strafrecht," 1867; "Die Legislative Organisation der Freien Advocatur," 1868; "Grundlagen der Pressgesetzgebung," 1874; "Abhandlungen zur Reform der Gesetzgebung," Leipsic, 1874; "Alexis de Tocqueville," Vienna, 1876; "Eisenbahnpolitik und Eisenbahnrecht in Oesterreich," 1878; "Oesterreich's Gegen wart und Nächste Zukunft," 1888. Of a greater work, "Revision des Deutschen und Oesterreichischen Strafrechtes," which he had planned, only the first volume was completed.

S. L. Y.
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