JAVAL, ERNEST LEOPOLD:
French administrative officer; born Sept. 25, 1843, at Paris; died there Sept. 1, 1897; son of Leopold Javal. He was a lieutenant in the Gardes Mobiles during the Franco-Prussian war (1870-71). In 1877 he was appointed successively subprefect of Boussac and Aubusson; in 1880, of Lunéville; in 1881, of Doucie(June 27) and Guéret (July 30), and in the same year he became prefect of the department La Creuse at Guéret; in 1883, inspector of administrative service in the Ministry of the Interior; and in 1885, director of the Institution Nationale des Sourds-Muets. As a result of observations made during a prolonged visit to America, he introduced in the institution various innovations, including manual training and the oral method of instructing deaf-mutes. He was made a chevalier of the Legion of Honor in 1888.