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JAVAL, LEOPOLD:

French politician; born at Mülhausen Dec. 1, 1804; died at Paris March 28, 1872. The son of a wealthy merchant, he entered the army and became a sublieutenant; as such he took part in the expedition against Algiers (1830). He subsequently resigned his commission and returned to France, where he interested himself in financial matters. Javal helped to establish in Paris the first omnibuses, which were known as "Orléanaises" and "Favorites." He became a bank director and established a model farm at Vauluisant; for planting pine trees in certain sandy plains he gained a gold medal at the Exposition of 1855, and he was awarded the cross of an officer of the Legion of Honor after the London Exhibition of 1863. Javal also took a prominent part in establishing the Alsatian railways.

In 1857 Javal was elected to the legislature as deputy for the Yonne department, and he consistently advocated free trade. He was reelected in 1863 and 1869, voted with the Left, opposed the Plébiscite, and aided Thiers and E. Picard in proclaiming the republic. The Yonne department sent him to the National Assembly in Feb., 1871. Javal represented the Jews of Alsace at the Central Consistory of Paris.

Bibliography:
  • Larousse, Dict.;
  • La Grande Encyclopédie.
S. V. E.
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