German manufacturer and writer; born in Berlin May, 1842. After graduating from the Köllnisches Gymnasium in Berlin he went to England, where he and his brothers founded an anilin-dye factory at Manchester. Returning to Berlin, he entered the university and studied philosophy. He owns factories in southern France, though living in Berlin. He has at various times taken up his pen in behalf of Judaism and Jewish rights. Of his works the following may be mentioned: "Wissenschaftlicher Antisemitismus," directed against Paulsen (Berlin, 1896); "Der Glaube Israels" (ib. 1896); "Die Taufe" (ib. 1899); "Professor Paulsen und die Judenfrage" (ib. 1897); "Die Forderung des Sonntag-Gottesdienstes: Antwort auf das Gutachten des Rabbinats und den Beschluss der Repräsentanten-Versammlung," in support of supplementary Sunday services (ib. 1898); "Ueber die Erlösung des Judenthums," against Benediktus Levita (ib. 1900); "Professor Ladenburg und der Unsterblichkeitsgedanke im Judenthum" (ib. 1904).