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LÉVY-BRUHL, LUCIEN:

French philosopher; born at Paris April 10, 1857; educated at the Lycée Charlemagne and the Ecole Normale Supérieure. In 1879 he received the degree of "agrégé en philosophic," and was at once called to a professorship in philosophy at the Lycée of Poitiers, which he resigned two years later for a professorship at Amiens. In 1884 he received the degree of Ph.D., and the year following was appointed professor of philosophy at the Lycée Louis-le-Grand, succeeding Burdeau. For several years he held the same chair at the Séminaire lsraélite de France, which he resigned in 1895 to become "maître de conférences" at the Ecole Normale Supérieure. In 1899 he was appointed to a similar position at the University of Paris, where, in 1902, he became "chargé de cours" of the history of modern philosophy. Since 1886 Lévy-Bruhl has lectured, at the Ecole Libre des Sciences Politiques, on the history of political movements and on the development of public spirit in Germany and England during the last two centuries.

Lévy-Bruhl has written: "L'Idée de Responsabilité" and "Quid de Deo Seneca Senserit" (Paris, 1884; his two graduating theses); "L'Allemagne Depuis Leibnitz" (ib. 1890); "Essai sur la Formation de la Conscience Nationale en Allemagne" (ib. 1890); "La Philosophie de Jacobi" (ib. 1894); "History of Modern Philosophy in France" (Chicago, 1899); "Lettres Inédites de John Stuart Mill à Auguste Comte" (Paris, 1899; containing the answers of Comte); "La Philosophie d'Auguste Comte" (ib. 1900); "La Morale et la Science des Mœurs" (ib. 1903). Lévy-Bruhl is a chevalier of the Legion of Honor.

Tombstone of Uriah Phillips Levy, Cypress Hills Cemetery, New York.(From a photograph.)S. J. Ka.
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